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Positioning type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) in front of GABA release sites sets the strength of inhibitory synapses. The evolutionarily conserved Ce-Punctin/MADD-4 is an anterograde synaptic organizer that specifies GABAergic versus cholinergic identity of postsynaptic domains at the C. elegans neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Here we show that the(More)
NKCC2, an isoform of Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter, is principally present in the kidney and plays a critical role in salt reabsorption. Expression of NKCC2 has been found in the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells in a number of marine fish, however, details for expression in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract are lacking. RT-PCR, Western(More)
Although reductions in neurotransmission have been reported in response to agonist-mediated adenosine A1 receptor activation, the implications of A2 receptor activation on synaptic transmission have not been well explored. We examined the role adenosine A2 receptors play in the efficacy of neurotransmission between the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pathway in the(More)
Carvedilol is a non-selective β-blocker used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, including myocardial ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of carvedilol on simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were incubated with either(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is considered a major etiological factor in the development of AD. BACE1-deficient mice and forebrain-specific conditional presenilin1 and presenilin2 double knockout mice (presenilins cDKO mice) both lack Aβ, but exhibit completely different phenotypes. The(More)
BACKGROUND Entacapone is a promising drug used widely for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) as a catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor. However, entacapone has gastrointestinal side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of entacapone on the epithelial ion transport in rat distal colon, and explore the underlying(More)
BACKGROUND The functions of the distal colon are regulated by local and extrinsic neural pathways. In previous studies, we have found that dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) could evoke colonic ion transport by activating β-adrenoceptors. The present study aims to investigate the segmental differences in expression and activation of β-adrenoceptors in(More)
The electric thickness of the semi-finished radome may not meet the requirement for the electromagnetic performance because it varies with both the geometry thickness and the electric inductivity of the radome. One way to obtain the required value of the electric thickness is to compensate the electric thickness error by modifying the wall thickness of the(More)
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