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The primary cilium is a sensory organelle, defects in which cause a wide range of human diseases including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease and birth defects. The sensory functions of cilia require specific receptors to be targeted to the ciliary subdomain of the plasma membrane. Arf4 has been proposed to sort cargo destined for the cilium at(More)
Hyperthermia is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with poor neurologic outcome, and hypothermia has emerged as a potentially effective therapy for TBI, although its mechanism is still unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of temperature modulations on astrocyte survival following traumatic injury and the(More)
Higher plasma urate level is reported to be associated with a reduced risk and slower progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we explored the effects of urate on dopaminergic neurons in nigrostriatal pathway in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) unilaterally lesioned rats. Uric acid (UA), when given twice daily at 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally for(More)
BACKGROUND Mounting evidence shows that urate may become a biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis and prognosis and a neuroprotectant candidate for PD therapy. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective actions remain poorly understood. RESULTS In this study, we showed that urate pretreatment protected(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of caveolin-1 in treadmill-exercise-induced angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra of rat brains, and whether caveolin-1 changes correlated with reduced brain injury induced by treadmill exercise, in rats after cerebral ischemia. Rats were randomized into five groups: sham-operated (S, n=7), model (M,(More)
In response to insect attack and mechanical wounding, plants activate the expression of genes involved in various defense-related processes. A fascinating feature of these inducible defenses is their occurrence both locally at the wounding site and systemically in undamaged leaves throughout the plant. Wound-inducible proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato(More)
BACKGROUND Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes play important roles in NPC tumorgenesis. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), is a protease inhibitor. Recently, TFPI-2 was suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis in some cancers. In this study, we investigated whether TFPI-2 was inactivated(More)
Enediyne natural product biosynthesis is characterized by a convergence of multiple pathways, generating unique peripheral moieties that are appended onto the distinctive enediyne core. Kedarcidin (KED) possesses two unique peripheral moieties, a (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and an iso-propoxy-bearing 2-naphthonate moiety, as well as two deoxysugars. The(More)
The SgcC5 condensation enzyme catalyzes the attachment of SgcC2-tethered (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-β-tyrosine (2) to the enediyne core in C-1027 (1) biosynthesis. It is reported that SgcC5 (i) exhibits high stereospecificity toward the (S)-enantiomers of SgcC2-tethered β-tyrosine and analogues as donors, (ii) prefers the (R)-enantiomers of(More)
Muraymycin, a potent translocase I inhibitor with clinical potential, is produced by Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30471. The structure of muraymycin is highly unusual and contains the hexahydro-2-imino-4-pyrimidylglycyl moiety (epicapreomycidine) and an ureido bond. Here we report the identification of the muraymycin gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30471.(More)