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Noise-exposure at levels low enough to avoid a permanent threshold shift has been found to cause a massive, delayed degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in mouse cochleae. Damage to the afferent innervation was initiated by a loss of synaptic ribbons, which is largely irreversible in mice. A similar delayed loss of SGNs has been found in guinea(More)
Noise exposure at low levels or low doses can damage hair cell afferent ribbon synapses without causing permanent threshold shifts. In contrast to reports in the mouse cochleae, initial damage to ribbon synapses in the cochleae of guinea pigs is largely repairable. In the present study, we further investigated the repair process in ribbon synapses in guinea(More)
In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic generative model, called Topic-Perspective Model, for simulating the generation process of social annotations. Different from other generative models, in our model, the tag generation process is separated from the content term generation process. While content terms are only generated from resource topics,(More)
This paper introduces a modulation-format transparent optical-label switching transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation. Packets consisting of 100 Gb/s payloads with 40 Gb/s labels and all-optical label extraction are demonstrated. 1. Introduction Optical-label switching (OLS) is an enabling technology geared towards integration of data and(More)
This paper presents the concept of an optical transmitter based on optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) capable of synthesizing Tb/s optical signals of arbitrary modulation format. Experimental and theoretical demonstrations in this paper include generation of data packet waveforms focusing on (a) achieving high spectral efficiencies in quadrature(More)
This paper presents single channel, 200 Gb/s, 20-bit DPSK packets generated by an optical arbitrary waveform generation based optical transmitter with chromatic dispersion precompensation, and their transmission through 100 km of single-mode-fiber and recovery.
We present a novel graph ranking model to extract a diverse set of answers for complex questions via random walks over a negative-edge graph. We assign a negative sign to edge weights in an answer graph to model the redundancy relation among the answer nodes. Negative edges can be thought of as the propagation of negative endorsements or disapprovals which(More)