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RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) has been proposed as a key inhibitory regulator of mammalian reproduction. To further determine the potential mechanisms and sites of action of RFRP-3, we systematically investigated the direct effect of RFRP-3 on the female pig reproductive axis in vitro. Initially, we confirmed that G protein-coupled receptor 147(More)
Genetic basis of grain yield heterosis relies on the cumulative effects of dominance, overdominance, and epistasis in maize hybrid Yuyu22. Heterosis, i.e., when F1 hybrid phenotypes are superior to those of the parents, continues to play a critical role in boosting global grain yield. Notwithstanding our limited insight into the genetic and molecular basis(More)
The organization of maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm into genetically divergent heterotic groups is the foundation of a successful hybrid maize breeding program. In this study, 94 CIMMYT maize lines (CMLs) and 54 United States germplasm enhancement of maize (GEM) lines were assembled and characterized using 1,266 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with(More)
BACKGROUND As the only truly flying mammals, bats use their unique wing - consisting of four elongated digits (digits II-V) connected by membranes - to power their flight. In addition to the elongated digits II-V, the forelimb contains one shorter digit (digit I) that is morphologically similar to the hindlimb digits. Here, we capitalized on the(More)
PURPOSE We explored the neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO)-loaded dextran microparticle-based Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)/Poly(DL-lactide) (PLGA/PLA) microspheres (EPO-dextran PLGA/PLA microspheres) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in optic nerve crush rats for a prolonged period of time. METHODS EPO-dextran PLGA/PLA microspheres were(More)
Lactococcus lactis is a well-studied bacterium widely used in dairy fermentation and capable of producing metabolites with organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. For fine tuning of the distribution of glycolytic flux at the pyruvate branch from lactate to diacetyl and balancing the production of the two metabolites under aerobic conditions, a(More)
Although podocyte apoptosis has been shown to be induced by the accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), the mechanisms through which AOPPs trigger apoptosis in these cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in AOPP-induced podocyte apoptosis. AOPP treatment induced overexpression(More)
BACKGROUND Glucokinase plays important tissue-specific roles in human physiology, where it acts as a sensor of blood glucose levels in the pancreas, and a few other cells of the gut and brain, and as the rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism in the liver. Liver-specific expression is driven by one of the two tissue-specific promoters, and has an absolute(More)
BACKGROUND The liver-specific glucokinase knockout (gckw/-) mouse experiences long-term hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the functional and structural changes in the myocardium of 60 week-old gckw/- mice, and to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on the myocardium in this model. METHODS 60 week-old gckw/- mice(More)
Liver glucokinase (GCK) deficient mice possess mild renal complications associated with diabetes. To investigate the progression of kidney disease and identify candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of renal damage, we examined changes in tissue structure and gene expression in the kidneys of liver-specific GCK knockout (gckw/-) mice and age-matched(More)