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Chromatin is composed of DNA and a variety of modified histones and non-histone proteins, which have an impact on cell differentiation, gene regulation and other key cellular processes. Here we present a genome-wide chromatin landscape for Drosophila melanogaster based on eighteen histone modifications, summarized by nine prevalent combinatorial patterns.(More)
To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties(More)
The let-60 ras gene acts in a signal transduction pathway to control vulval differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans. By screening suppressors of a dominant negative let-60 ras allele, we isolated three loss-of-function mutations in the sur-5 gene which appear to act as negative regulators of let-60 ras during vulval induction. sur-5 mutations do not cause(More)
Although it has been postulated that vesicle mobility is increased to enhance release of transmitters and neuropeptides, the mechanism responsible for increasing vesicle motion in nerve terminals and the effect of perturbing this mobilization on synaptic plasticity are unknown. Here, green fluorescent protein-tagged dense-core vesicles (DCVs) are imaged in(More)
The use of plant disease resistance (R) genes in breeding programs needs an understanding of their variation patterns. In our current study, we investigated the polymorphisms of 44 NBS-LRR class R-genes among 21 rice cultivars and 14 wild rice populations. Our data suggested that there were four basic types of variations: conserved, diversified,(More)
We have tested the specificity and utility of more than 200 antibodies raised against 57 different histone modifications in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and human cells. Although most antibodies performed well, more than 25% failed specificity tests by dot blot or western blot. Among specific antibodies, more than 20% failed in chromatin(More)
Chromatin environments differ greatly within a eukaryotic genome, depending on expression state, chromosomal location, and nuclear position. In genomic regions characterized by high repeat content and high gene density, chromatin structure must silence transposable elements but permit expression of embedded genes. We have investigated one such region,(More)
The normal functioning of neuroendocrine systems requires that many neuropeptidergic cells change, to alter transmitter identity and concentration, electrical properties, and cellular morphology in response to hormonal cues. During insect metamorphosis, a pulse of circulating steroids, ecdysteroids, governs the dramatic remodeling of larval neurons to serve(More)
Chromatin insulator elements and associated proteins have been proposed to partition eukaryotic genomes into sets of independently regulated domains. Here we test this hypothesis by quantitative genome-wide analysis of insulator protein binding to Drosophila chromatin. We find distinct combinatorial binding of insulator proteins to different classes of(More)
PTEN phosphatase is a potent tumor suppressor that regulates multiple cellular functions. In the cytoplasm, PTEN dephosphorylates its primary lipid substrate, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, to antagonize the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway. It has also become increasingly evident that PTEN functions in the nucleus and(More)