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A key step in RNA interference (RNAi) is assembly of the RISC, the protein-siRNA complex that mediates target RNA cleavage. Here, we show that the two strands of an siRNA duplex are not equally eligible for assembly into RISC. Rather, both the absolute and relative stabilities of the base pairs at the 5' ends of the two siRNA strands determine the degree to(More)
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes. In flies, somatic cells produce siRNAs from exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a defense against viral infection. We identified endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), 21 nucleotides in length, that correspond to transposons and heterochromatic sequences in the somatic cells of(More)
The putative RNA helicase, Armitage (Armi), is required to repress oskar translation in Drosophila oocytes; armi mutant females are sterile and armi mutations disrupt anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterning. Here, we show that armi is required for RNAi. armi mutant male germ cells fail to silence Stellate, a gene regulated endogenously by RNAi, and(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, 21- to 23-nucleotide cellular RNAs that control the expression of cognate target genes. Primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts are transformed to mature miRNA by the successive actions of two RNase III endonucleases. Drosha converts pri-miRNA transcripts to precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA); Dicer, in turn, converts(More)
CONTEXT Betatrophin has recently attracted increasing interests as a potential β-cell regenerative therapy in diabetes. However, differences in betatrophin profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine circulating betatrophin levels in subjects with different glucose tolerance(More)
The rat has been used extensively as a model for evaluating chemical toxicities and for understanding drug mechanisms. However, its transcriptome across multiple organs, or developmental stages, has not yet been reported. Here we show, as part of the SEQC consortium efforts, a comprehensive rat transcriptomic BodyMap created by performing RNA-Seq on 320(More)
Pluripotency, the ability to generate any cell type of the body, is an evanescent attribute of embryonic cells. Transitory pluripotent cells can be captured at different time points during embryogenesis and maintained as embryonic stem cells or epiblast stem cells in culture. Since ontogenesis is a dynamic process in both space and time, it seems(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stimulation of astrocytes by the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine, a neuroprotective drug, transactivates epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. The present study investigates signal pathways leading to release of an EGF receptor ligand and those activated during EGF receptor stimulation, and the response of neurons to(More)