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Seed germination plays a pivotal role during the life cycle of plants. As dry seeds imbibe water, the resumption of energy metabolism and cellular repair occur and miRNA-mediated gene expression regulation is involved in the reactivation events. This research was aimed at understanding the role of miRNA in the molecular control during seed imbibition(More)
—In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), because of the nonexistence of end-to-end connections, it is essential that nodes take advantage of connection opportunities to forward messages to make end-to-end messaging possible. Thus, it is crucial to make sure that nodes have incentives to forward messages for others, despite the fact that the routing protocols(More)
—Wireless mesh networks have been widely deployed to provide broadband network access, and their performance can be significantly improved by using a new technology called network coding. In a wireless mesh network using network coding, selfish nodes may deviate from the protocol when they are supposed to forward packets. This fundamental problem of packet(More)
Ethylene response factors (ERF) play crucial roles in plant development and response to stresses. Here, a novel cDNA fragment (MsERF8) encoding an ERF protein with an AP2 domain was isolated and characterized from alfalfa. The MsERF8 cDNA has an open reading frame of 603 bp and encodes a nuclear protein of 201 amino acids. Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed that(More)
Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt(More)
—Opportunistic networking is an important technique to enable users to communicate in an environment where contemporaneous end-to-end paths are unavailable or unstable. To support end-to-end messaging in opportunistic networks, a number of probabilistic routing protocols have been proposed. However, when nodes are selfish, they may not have incentives to(More)
BACKGROUND Three* human polyomaviruses have been discovered recently, KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV. These viruses appear to circulate ubiquitously; however, their clinical significance beyond Merkel cell carcinoma is almost completely unknown. In particular, nothing is known about their preponderance in vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to(More)
Network coding has been shown to be an effective approach to improve the wireless system performance. However, many security issues impede its wide deployment in practice. Besides the well-studied pollution attacks, there is another severe threat, that of wormhole attacks, which undermines the performance gain of network coding. Since the underlying(More)
Stress, either psychological or physical, can have a dramatic impact on the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the induction of innate and adaptive immune response. We have reported that stress modulates the immune response in a TLR4-dependent manner. However, the mechanisms underlying TLR4-mediated signaling in stress(More)