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The theories of aero- and hydrodynamics predict animal movement and device design in air and water through the computation of lift, drag, and thrust forces. Although models of terrestrial legged locomotion have focused on interactions with solid ground, many animals move on substrates that flow in response to intrusion. However, locomotor-ground interaction(More)
—We study the detailed locomotor mechanics of a small, lightweight robot (DynaRoACH, 10 cm, 25 g) which can move on a granular substrate of closely packed 3 mm diameter glass particles at speeds up to 50 cm/s (5 body length/s), approaching the performance of small, high-performing, desert-dwelling lizards. To reveal how the robot achieves this high(More)
Particulate substrates like deserts or Martian terrain are often composed of collections of particles of different sizes and shapes. While much is known about how robots can effectively locomote on hard ground and increasingly on homogeneous granular ground, the principles of locomotion over heterogeneous granular substrates are relatively unexplored. In(More)
Natural substrates like sand, soil, leaf litter and snow vary widely in penetration resistance. To search for principles of appendage design in robots and animals that permit high performance on such flowable ground, we developed a ground control technique by which the penetration resistance of a dry granular substrate could be widely and rapidly varied.(More)
We study the locomotor mechanics of a small, lightweight robot (DynaRoACH, 10 cm, 25 g) which can move on a granular substrate of 3 mm diameter glass particles at speeds up to 5 body length/s, approaching the performance of certain desert-dwelling animals. To reveal how the robot achieves this performance, we used high-speed imaging to capture its(More)
Resistive force theory (RFT) is often used to analyze the movement of microscopic organisms swimming in fluids. In RFT, a body is partitioned into infinitesimal segments , each of which generates thrust and experiences drag. Linear superposition of forces from elements over the body allows prediction of swimming velocities and efficiencies. We show that RFT(More)
Discovery of fundamental principles which govern and limit effective locomotion (self-propulsion) is of intellectual interest and practical importance. Human technology has created robotic moving systems that excel in movement on and within environments of societal interest: paved roads, open air and water. However, such devices cannot yet robustly and(More)
The paper described a design of digital angular sensor with 180° measurement range, based on ratiometric and capacitive measurement principle, and has a metallic and ungrounded rotor plate. Owing to its structure and measurement mechanism, the sensor has intrinsic reliability and can effectively restrain common mode disturbances, say, temperature,(More)
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