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HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is characterized by collapsing FSGS. Because transgenic mice with podocyte-specific overexpression of the vascular endothelial growth factor 164 (VEGF164) isoform also develop collapsing FSGS, we sought to determine whether VEGF plays a role in HIVAN. Compared with controls, immunohistochemistry revealed that kidneys from(More)
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in HIV-1 seropositive patients. The pathologic findings include collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with proliferation of epithelial cells in Bowman's space. Anatomically, these cells correspond to podocytes and exhibit a unique phenotype with loss of many(More)
The ability of the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) protein Nef to induce cytoskeleton changes in infected host cells is a key event in viral replication. In renal podocytes, we found that Nef induced loss of stress fibers and increased lamellipodia, pathological changes leading to proteinuria in HIV-associated nephropathy. These morphological(More)
HIV-associated nephropathy is characterized by renal podocyte proliferation and dedifferentiation. This study found that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) reverses the effects of HIV-1 infection in podocytes. Treatment with atRA reduced cell proliferation rate by causing G1 arrest and restored the expression of the differentiation markers (synaptopodin,(More)
HIV-1 Nef induces podocyte proliferation and dedifferentiation by activating the Stat3 and MAPK1,2 pathways. Activation of Stat3 also occurs in human kidneys affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), but its contribution to the development of HIVAN is unknown. Here, we generated HIV-1 transgenic mice (Tg26) with either 75% Stat3 activity (Tg26-SA/+)(More)
All-trans retinoic acid protects against the development of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in HIV-1 transgenic mice (Tg26). In vitro, all-trans retinoic acid inhibits HIV-induced podocyte proliferation and restores podocyte differentiation markers by activating its receptor-α (RARα). Here, we report that Am580, a water-soluble RARα-specific agonist,(More)
Recent studies suggest that Stat3, a transcription factor that mediates cytokine signaling, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Complete Stat3 gene knockout is embryonic lethal; therefore, we crossed Stat3+/- mice with Stat3 mutant mice (SA/SA) that lack full Stat3 activity. This strategy generated Stat3SA/- mice (25%(More)
Nef-induced podocyte proliferation and dedifferentiation via mitogen-activated protein kinase 1,2 (MAPK1,2) activation plays a role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nephropathy pathogenesis. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) reverses the HIV-induced podocyte phenotype by activating cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibiting MAPK1,2. Here we(More)
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an important cause of renal failure in HIV-1 seropositive patients. The disease is characterized by collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with marked podocyte proliferation, microcystic dilatation of the tubules and interstitial nephritis. Patients generally present with advanced HIV-1 infection, renal(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW HIV-1-associated nephropathy is characterized clinically by proteinuria with azotemia and pathologically by collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with tubulointerstitial nephritis and microcystic tubular dilatation. This review summarizes the manner in which different transgenic animal models contribute to our knowledge of the(More)
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