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BACKGROUND Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young adults. OBJECTIVE The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical(More)
In vertebrates, there are six or more copies of genes related to the Drosophila pattern formation homeodomain gene Distal-less. Among this family, Dlx3 and Dlx5 share extensive sequence homology and have similar, but distinctive, expression patterns, suggesting that these two factors may have substantially redundant developmental functions. Here we show(More)
Dysregulation of Fragile X mental retardation-1 (Fmr1) gene expression results in an inherited form of mental retardation known as the Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Fmr1 is a highly conserved gene with a broad yet distinctive expression pattern during vertebrate development. Here, we examined the expression pattern of Fmr1 during Xenopus embryonic development.(More)
PURPOSE To image and analyze anatomical differences at the temporal raphe between normal and glaucomatous eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to relate these differences to visual field measurements. METHODS Nine glaucomatous eyes of 9 patients (age 54-78 years, mean deviation of(More)
Three members of the vertebrate Distal-less gene family, Dlx3, 5 and 6, are transcribed in early gastrula embryos of Xenopus laevis. This expression is confined to ectoderm and is excluded from the presumptive neural plate region. Expression of all three genes is dependent upon BMP signaling, with significant differences in how the three genes respond to(More)
Studies of brain-specific kinase 2 (BRSK2), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, and its homologs suggest that they are multifunctional regulators of cell-cycle progression. BRSK2, which contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, is polyubiquitinated in cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms and exact biological function of BRSK2(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is almost always caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene. The defects observed in FXS indicate that the normal FMR1 gene has a range of functions and plays a particularly prominent role during development. However, the mechanisms regulating FMR1 expression in vivo are not known. Here, we have tested the role of the transcription factor(More)
Cytolytic proteins and peptide toxins are classical virulence factors of several bacterial pathogens which disrupt epithelial barrier function, damage cells and activate or modulate host immune responses. Such toxins have not been identified previously in human pathogenic fungi. Here we identify the first, to our knowledge, fungal cytolytic peptide toxin in(More)