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Proteases are crucial for development, tissue remodeling, and tumorigenesis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) family, in particular, consists of more than 20 members with unique substrates and diverse function. The expression and activity of MMPs in a variety of human cancers have been intensively studied. MMPs have well-recognized roles in the late stage(More)
We report experiments with Xenopus laevis, using both intact embryos and ectodermal explants, showing that the transcription factor AP2alpha is positively regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling, and that this activation is an essential step in the induction of neural crest (NC). Ectopic expression of AP2alpha is sufficient to(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse the expression of mouse mammary tumor virus-like (MMTV-like) gene sequencesin breast cancer of Chinese women. METHODS Using nested PCR that amplify MMTV-like gene sequences, we tested the breast cancer tissues from 131 Chinese patients. The result was analyzed and compared with postoperative pathology and prevalence that had been(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young adults. OBJECTIVE The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical(More)
Expression of the Xenopus homolog of the mammalian transcription factor AP-2alpha (XAP-2) is activated throughout the animal hemisphere shortly after the midblastula transition, and becomes restricted to prospective epidermis by the end of gastrulation, under the control of BMP signal modulation. Elevated expression in the future neural crest region begins(More)
Protocadherins (Pcdhs), a major subfamily of cadherins, play an important role in specific intercellular interactions in development. These molecules are characterized by their unique extracellular domain (EC) with more than 5 cadherin-like repeats, a transmembrane domain (TM) and a variable cytoplasmic domain. PCNS (Protocadherin in Neural crest and(More)
The two Toll-like receptors, TLR1 and TLR2 were cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, an important teleost fish in mariculture of Asia. The cDNA sequences of TLR1 and TLR2 are 3195 and 3439 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2406 and 2466 bp, encoding 801 and 821 amino acids, respectively. The TLR family motifs, i.e.(More)
Twist, a newly found EMT-inducer, has been reported to be up-regulated in those of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas with high N-cadherin level. We show here MKN45, a cell line derived from undifferentiated carcinomas cells, expresses high levels of Twist. Down-regulation of Twist, using an antisense Twist vector in MKN45 cells, inhibits cell migration and(More)
Animal and in vitro studies suggest that the use of aspirin may be associated with reduced risk for breast cancer, but results from these studies of the association have been inconsistent. The objective of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for such a relationship. We searched MEDLINE for studies of aspirin use and(More)
Dysregulation of Fragile X mental retardation-1 (Fmr1) gene expression results in an inherited form of mental retardation known as the Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Fmr1 is a highly conserved gene with a broad yet distinctive expression pattern during vertebrate development. Here, we examined the expression pattern of Fmr1 during Xenopus embryonic development.(More)