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Targeted mice lacking functional EGF or amphiregulin (AR) were derived and bred to the TGFalpha-knockout to generate mice lacking various combinations of the three ligands. In contrast to EGF receptor (EGFR) knockout mice, triple null mice lacking half of the EGFR ligand family were healthy and fertile, indicative of overlapping or compensatory functions(More)
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) and betacellulin (BTC) are activating ligands for EGF receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) and ErbB4. To identify their physiological functions, we disrupted mouse HB-EGF and BTC alleles by homologous recombination. Most HB-EGF(-/-) mice died before weaning, and survivors had enlarged, dysfunctional hearts and reduced(More)
To explore the physiological roles of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), we disrupted the mouse gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Homozygous mutant mice were viable and fertile, but displayed pronounced waviness of the whiskers and fur, accompanied by abnormal curvature, disorientation, and misalignment of the hair(More)
Mice harboring the waved-1 (wa-1) and waved-2 (wa-2) mutations exhibit skin and eye abnormalities that are strikingly similar to those of TGF-alpha-deficient mice, and wa-1 and TGF-alpha were recently shown to be allelic. Because the wa-2 mutation was mapped previously to the vicinity of the EGF/TGF-alpha receptor (EGFR) gene on mouse chromosome 11, we(More)
The epistatically interacting modifier loci (Apmt1 and Apmt2) accelerate the polyoma Middle-T (PyVT)-induced mammary tumor. To identify potential candidate genes loci, a combined bioinformatics and genomics strategy was used. On the basis of the assumption that the loci were functioning in the same or intersecting pathways, a search of the literature(More)
FVB/N-Tg (MMTV-PyMT)(634Mul)-transgenic mice develop multifocal mammary tumors with a high incidence of pulmonary metastasis. We have demonstrated previously that mammary tumors derived from transgene-positive F1 progeny in particular inbred strains display altered latency, tumor growth rates, and metastatic rates when compared with the FVB/NJ homozygous(More)
To characterize the effect(s) of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) during multistage carcinogenesis, we examined tumor development in pancreas and liver of transgenic mice that coexpressed TGF alpha with either viral (simian virus 40 T antigens [TAg]) or cellular (c-myc) oncogenes. In pancreas, TGF alpha itself was not oncogenic, but it(More)
Frk/rak belongs to a novel family of Src kinases with epithelial tissue-specific expression. Although developmental expression patterns and functional overexpression in vitro have associated these kinases with growth suppression and differentiation, their physiological functions remain largely unknown. We therefore generated mice carrying a null mutation in(More)
MOTIVATION In microarray experiments investigators sometimes wish to pool RNA samples before labeling and hybridization due to insufficient RNA from each individual sample or to reduce the number of arrays for the purpose of saving cost. The basic assumption of pooling is that the expression of an mRNA molecule in the pool is close to the average expression(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Mice lacking epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha, and amphiregulin were used to identify roles for these EGF receptor (EGF-R) ligands in gastrointestinal development and mucosal integrity. METHODS Gastrointestinal tract development was examined in knockout mice and correlated with expression of EGF-R protein(More)