Ting Feng Tang

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Fig pollinating wasps form obligate symbioses with their fig hosts. This mutualism arose approximately 75 million years ago. Unlike many other intimate symbioses, which involve vertical transmission of symbionts to host offspring, female fig wasps fly great distances to transfer horizontally between hosts. In contrast, male wasps are wingless and cannot(More)
– Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) overcome the other common actuators as it has higher power-to-weight ratio. However, the air compressibility and lack of damping ability of PAM brings dynamic delay to the pressure response and causes oscillatory motion to occur. It is not easy to realize the motion with high accuracy and high speed due to all the(More)
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