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OBJECTIVE The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. METHODS Meal tests with measurements of postprandial(More)
INCRETIN EFFECT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES—Whereas glucose-tolerant individuals are capable of adjusting their insulin secretion to their actual insulin sensitivity, people with type 2 diabetes are incapable of doing so (1). b-Cell failure is therefore the hallmark of this disease, although failure may be precipitated by the development of insulin resistance,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether treatment with agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) result in weight loss in overweight or obese patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES Electronic searches (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science) and manual searches (up(More)
1 OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means 6 SEM] aged 23 6 1 years, BMI 23 6 1 kg/m 2 , and HbA 1c 5.5 6 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Saline or physiological doses of GIP were administered intravenously (randomized and(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts beneficial antidiabetic actions via effects on pancreatic beta- and alpha-cells. Previous studies have focused on the improvements in beta-cell function, while the inhibition of alpha-cell secretion has received less attention. The aim of this research was to quantify the glucagonostatic contribution to the(More)
Identification of a common risk haplotype for diabetic nephropathy at the protein kinase C-β1 gene locus.ment of 115 candidate genes for diabetic nephropathy by transmission disequilibrium test. Beneficial effects of once-daily liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in patients with Type 2 diabetes(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects during oral glucose or meal tests. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligible trials were identified by The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science. Data were retrieved and random-effects models(More)
5 INTRODUCTION (BY M.A.N.) — Incretin mimetics and in-hibitors of the protease dipeptidyl pep-tidase (DPP)-4 are new classes of antidiabetic agents first introduced in the years 2005 (exenatide) and 2007 (sitagliptin), respectively. Both use the antidiabetic properties of the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 (1). This gut-derived peptide(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) is rapidly inactivated by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), but may interact with vagal neurons at its site of secretion. We investigated the role of vagal innervation for handling of oral and i.v. glucose. DESIGN AND METHODS Truncally vagotomised subjects (n=16) and matched controls (n=10) underwent 50 g-oral glucose(More)
The potential reversibility of a reduced incretin effect is unclear. We investigated the incretin effect during third trimester and 3 to 4months postpartum in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Ten women with GDM (plasma glucose (PG) concentration at 120min after 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (PG120min): 10.1±0.6mmol/l(More)