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Incretin hormones importantly enhance postprandial insulin secretion but are rapidly degraded to inactive metabolites by ubiquitous dipeptidyl peptidase IV. The concentrations of the intact biologically active hormones remain largely unknown. Using newly developed assays for intact glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are both incretin hormones regulating postprandial insulin secretion. Their relative importance in this respect under normal physiological conditions is unclear, however, and the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate this. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean(More)
The incretin hormones are released during meals from gut endocrine cells. They potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion and may be responsible for up to 70% of postprandial insulin secretion. The incretin hormones include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), both of which may also promote(More)
OBJECTIVE The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. METHODS Meal tests with measurements of postprandial(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether treatment with agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) result in weight loss in overweight or obese patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES Electronic searches (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science) and manual searches (up(More)
1 OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means 6 SEM] aged 23 6 1 years, BMI 23 6 1 kg/m 2 , and HbA 1c 5.5 6 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Saline or physiological doses of GIP were administered intravenously (randomized and(More)
INCRETIN EFFECT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES—Whereas glucose-tolerant individuals are capable of adjusting their insulin secretion to their actual insulin sensitivity, people with type 2 diabetes are incapable of doing so (1). b-Cell failure is therefore the hallmark of this disease, although failure may be precipitated by the development of insulin resistance,(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts beneficial antidiabetic actions via effects on pancreatic beta- and alpha-cells. Previous studies have focused on the improvements in beta-cell function, while the inhibition of alpha-cell secretion has received less attention. The aim of this research was to quantify the glucagonostatic contribution to the(More)