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Incretin hormones importantly enhance postprandial insulin secretion but are rapidly degraded to inactive metabolites by ubiquitous dipeptidyl peptidase IV. The concentrations of the intact biologically active hormones remain largely unknown. Using newly developed assays for intact glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS After a 2 week placebo run-in period, eligible patients inadequately controlled on long-acting, intermediate-acting or premixed insulin (HbA1c > or = 7.5% and < or = 11%), were(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones secreted in response to meal ingestion, thereby enhancing postprandial insulin secretion. Therefore, an attenuated incretin response could contribute to the impaired insulin responses in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present(More)
The incretin hormones are released during meals from gut endocrine cells. They potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion and may be responsible for up to 70% of postprandial insulin secretion. The incretin hormones include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), both of which may also promote(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are both incretin hormones regulating postprandial insulin secretion. Their relative importance in this respect under normal physiological conditions is unclear, however, and the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate this. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) is strongly insulinotropic in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, whereas glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is less effective. Our investigation evaluated "early" (protocol 1) - and "late phase" (protocol 2) insulin and C-peptide responses to GLP-1 and GIP(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are incretin hormones, secreted in response to meal ingestion. The incretin hormones stimulate insulin secretion and are essential for the maintenance of normal plasma glucose concentrations. Both incretin hormones are metabolized quickly by the enzyme dipeptidyl(More)
OBJECTIVE The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. METHODS Meal tests with measurements of postprandial(More)
BACKGROUND Regulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. (More)