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BACKGROUND Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. RESULTS We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete(More)
Various acute and chronic brain diseases result in disturbed expression of the glial glutamate transporters, GLAST/EAAT-1 and GLT-1/EAAT-2, and subsequent secondary neuronal cell death. The idea that glutamate-induced brain damage can be prevented by restoring glutamate homeostasis in the injured brain, focussed previous efforts on identifying the network(More)
BACKGROUND Cytosine DNA methylation has been detected in many eukaryotic organisms and has been shown to play an important role in development and disease of vertebrates including humans. Molecularly, DNA methylation appears to be involved in the suppression of initiation or of elongation of transcription. Resulting organismal functions are suggested to be(More)
The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network(More)
In the CNS, extracellular glutamate is predominantly cleared by astroglial cells through the high-affinity glutamate transporter subtype, EAAT2/GLT-1. Expression of EAAT2/GLT-1 is perturbed in various acute and chronic brain diseases eventually allowing for the onset of neurotoxic extracellular glutamate concentrations and subsequent excitotoxic neuronal(More)
OBJECTIVE The contribution of hypertension in the pathological cascade of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) remains elusive, and appropriate models are lacking [1]. We have previously demonstrated an impairment of short-term memory in adult mice exposed to prolonged angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion [2]. We hypothesize that 1) the underlying mechanism(More)
Like all articles in BMC journals, this peer-reviewed article was published immediately upon acceptance. It can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below). which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. which permits unrestricted(More)
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