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BACKGROUND Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. RESULTS We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete(More)
Various acute and chronic brain diseases result in disturbed expression of the glial glutamate transporters, GLAST/EAAT-1 and GLT-1/EAAT-2, and subsequent secondary neuronal cell death. The idea that glutamate-induced brain damage can be prevented by restoring glutamate homeostasis in the injured brain, focussed previous efforts on identifying the network(More)
BACKGROUND Cytosine DNA methylation has been detected in many eukaryotic organisms and has been shown to play an important role in development and disease of vertebrates including humans. Molecularly, DNA methylation appears to be involved in the suppression of initiation or of elongation of transcription. Resulting organismal functions are suggested to be(More)
The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network(More)
In the CNS, extracellular glutamate is predominantly cleared by astroglial cells through the high-affinity glutamate transporter subtype, EAAT2/GLT-1. Expression of EAAT2/GLT-1 is perturbed in various acute and chronic brain diseases eventually allowing for the onset of neurotoxic extracellular glutamate concentrations and subsequent excitotoxic neuronal(More)
An enzyme hydrolyzing N-acetylaminoacyl-p-nitroanilides has been isolated from mature human placentae by a six-step procedure comprising extraction from a placenta homogenate, ammonium sulfate fractionation, treatment with isopentyl alcohol, chromatography on CM-Sephadex, protamine sulfate precipitation and gel filtration on an Ultrogel AcA 34 column. About(More)
Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Under the following conditions: Attribution  the original author must be given credit;  for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are;  any of these conditions can be waived if the authors gives(More)
Synthetic PZ peptide, synthesized by Wünsch and Heidrich, was used as substrate to determine PZ peptidase activities in the sera of man, rabbit, guinea pig and mouse. The PZ peptidase from rabbit serum was purified 200 fold and characterized. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 5.0 and pH optima at pH 7.2 and pH 7.9. Its behaviour on gel filtration(More)
Continuing our contributions on proteases of human placenta we enriched some unidentified neutral peptidases by chromatographying freeze dried placenta extracts on CM-Sephadex, followed by preparative isoelectric focusing and chromatography on Ultrogel. By this procedure two Acetyl-aminoacyl-p-nitranilidases, three Ala-Ala-p-nitranilidases, one(More)
Proteolytic, arylamidase-like activities of human serum are determined by using a sensitive micromethod, based upon the Bratton-Marshall-reaction, and amino acid-p-nitroanilides as substrates. Besides the alanine-aminopeptidase and the oxytocinase, the dipeptide-aminopeptidase II, a neutral peptidase, and 6 other peptidases, not yet identified by us, are(More)