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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric illness that may develop in individuals after exposure to a traumatic event. Recent data suggest that trauma and/or long-term stressors can cause alterations in the functioning of neuroanatomical structures and neural networks throughout the central nervous system. Specifically, dysregulation in(More)
Previous studies have found that treatment with lithium over a 4-week period may increase the concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in both bipolar patients and controls. In view of other findings indicating that NAA concentrations may be a good marker for neuronal viability and/or functioning, it has been further suggested that some of the long term(More)
A role for beta-endorphin (beta-END) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is suggested by both animal research and studies examining clinical populations. The major etiological theories of depression include brain regions and neural systems that interact with opioid systems and beta-END. Recent preclinical data have demonstrated(More)
One of the mechanisms underlying lithium's efficacy as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder has been proposed to be via its effects on the phosphoinositol cycle (PI cycle), where it is an inhibitor of the enzyme converting inositol monophosphates to myoinositol. In contrast, sodium valproate, another commonly used mood stabilizer, appears to have no direct(More)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hypotonia at birth, hypogonadism, early childhood obesity, and mental deficiency. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a major characteristic of patients with PWS, and it is speculated to be due to hypothalamic insufficiency. Two adult female patients with PWS and no prior history of menses are presented. Both of(More)
The present study was designed to determine if the mood stabilizers, lithium and valproate, have common effects on concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters which may be related to their mechanisms of action. Two separate groups of rats were administered therapeutic doses of lithium, sodium valproate, or saline for 2 weeks. Whole brain extracts were(More)
Background: It has been suggested that lithium increases choline concentrations, although previous human studies examining this possibility using 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) have had mixed results: some found increases while most found no differences.
BACKGROUND It has been proposed that lithium may be clinically effective due to its actions on the phosphoinositol second messenger system (PI-cycle). Studies have also suggested that untreated manic patients may have raised myo-inositol and phosphomonoester (PME) concentrations and also that unmedicated euthymic bipolar patients may have lowered PME(More)
BACKGROUND Lithium may affect brain choline concentrations, and this effect has been proposed to potentially explain its clinical efficacy. Since dextro-amphetamine is a useful human model of mania, we were interested in determining firstly whether dextro-amphetamine would alter brain choline concentrations, and secondly to determine if lithium would(More)