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Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria consume methane as it diffuses away from methanogenic zones of soil and sediment. They act as a biofilter to reduce methane emissions to the atmosphere, and they are therefore targets in strategies to combat global climate change. No cultured methanotroph grows optimally below pH 5, but some environments with active methane(More)
Speed of nerve impulse conduction is greatly increased by myelin, a multi-layered membranous sheath surrounding axons. Myelinated axons are ubiquitous among the vertebrates, but relatively rare among invertebrates. Electron microscopy of calanoid copepods using rapid cryofixation techniques revealed the widespread presence of myelinated axons. Myelin(More)
The mechanoreceptors of the first antennae of Pleuromamma xiphias, a mesopelagic calanoid copepod, are critical for the detection of potential threats. These receptors exceed the physiological performance of other crustacean mechanoreceptors in sensitivity to water velocities as well as in frequency response. A study of these receptors was initiated to(More)
The sinus gland of Cardisoma carnifex was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. This neurohemal organ is composed primarily of enlarged, branching axon terminals with numerous finger-like projections, which act as storage and release sites for neurohormones that are assumed to be contained in membrane-bound, electron-dense neurosecretory(More)
In some animals, such as fish, insects, and cephalopods, the thick egg coat has a narrow canal-a micropyle-through which spermatozoa enter the eggs. In fish, there is no indication that spermatozoa are attracted by eggs from a distance, but once spermatozoa come near the outer opening of the micropyle, they exhibit directed movement toward it, suggesting(More)
Calcium overload of neural cell mitochondria plays a key role in excitotoxic and ischemic brain injury. This study tested the hypothesis that brain mitochondria consist of subpopulations with differential sensitivity to calcium-induced inner membrane permeability transition, and that this sensitivity is greatly reduced by physiological levels of adenine(More)
BACKGROUND Rotational atherectomy is used to penetrate resistant coronary lesions from standard balloon dilatation. These lesions may contain heavy calcification or metallic components from previously implanted stents. When the rotablator device is utilized to ablate an undilatable lesion containing metallic stent component, what happens to the rotablator(More)
Electron-microscopic comparison of K+-stimulated and unstimulated crab sinus glands reveals significant differences in neurosecretory terminal morphology. Sinus glands exposed to elevated K+ saline for increasing periods of time show increasing numbers of exocytotic release profiles, vacuoles, and multilamellate bodies, and a decrease in the number of(More)
SUMMARY The sinus gland (a neurohaemal organ) and its nerve have been isolated from the eyestalk of the crabs Cardisoma carnifex and Portunus sanguino-lentus for studies correlating electrical responses recorded extra-cellularly from the sinus gland with hormone release. The appearance of erythrophore concentrating hormone (ECH) in the perfusate was(More)