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Clinical observations have suggested that ovarian steroid hormones modulate the symptomology of psychiatric disorders and this modulation is thought to be due to a protective effect of estrogen on dopaminergic activity. To test this hypothesis, mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity was examined in relationship to endogenous hormone levels. Using in vivo(More)
Rats were treated twice daily either with saline or d-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) for 5 days. When challenged approximately 15 days later with an injection of 0.5 mg/kg amphetamine, the chronic amphetamine animals showed (1) an augmented release of dopamine in the caudate nucleus in vivo and (2) an increase in stereotyped behavior compared to the chronic saline(More)
Estrogen regulates neuroendocrine, reproductive, and behavioral functions of the brain by utilizing a number of diverse cellular mechanisms. In the classical genomic mechanism of steroids, estrogen induces relatively long-term actions on neurons by activating specific intracellular receptors that modulate transcription and protein synthesis. In addition,(More)
The ability of estrogen to modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) was examined using in vivo voltammetry. Estrogen priming (5 micrograms, 48 h) of ovariectomized (ovx) female rats resulted in a slight decrease in K(+)-stimulated DA release measured in the nucleus accumbens: this decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in both DA reuptake and DA(More)
Physicochemical characteristics of two isolates of a neonatal calf diarrhea virus were investigated. Neither isolate was sensitive to ether or chloroform, both were stable at pH 3.0, were relatively heat resistant, but were thermolabile when heated to 50 degrees C for one hour in the presence of 1.0 M MgCl(2). Multiplication of virus was not inhibited by(More)
In vivo voltammetry was used to measure stimulated dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Lesions of the PFC resulted in a significant potentiation of K(+)-stimulated DA release (383% of control). These data are in agreement with other studies which suggest DAergic(More)
(+)-Pentazocine, a potent sigma ligand that lacks affinity for PCP receptors, produced dose-dependent contralateral circling behavior following microinjections in the substantia nigra of rats. This effect was attenuated by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of ascending dopamine neurons and enhanced by systemic injections of amphetamine, 6-OHDA lesions also(More)
The present studies were carried out to determine if tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in rat brain striatal synaptosomes is activated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP treatment. Incubation of synaptosomes with [32P]orthophosphate, followed by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, produced a band of radioactivity(More)
The ability of N-(p-isothiocyanatophenethyl) spiperone (NIPS, 10 mg/kg, 24 h), a selective, irreversible alkylating agent of the dopamine D(2) receptor, to alter properties of dopamine uptake and clearance in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of ovariectomized and estrogen-primed (estradiol benzoate, 10 microg, 48 h, 24 h) rats was examined using(More)