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Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold(More)
RATIONALE The incidence of allergic disorders is increasing in developed countries and has been associated with reduced exposure to microbes and alterations in the commensal bacterial flora. OBJECTIVES To ascertain the relevance of commensal bacteria on the development of an allergic response, we used a model of allergic airway inflammation in germ-free(More)
Basophils are powerful mediators of Th2 immunity and are present in increased numbers during allergic inflammation and helminth infection. Despite their ability to potentiate Th2 immunity the mechanisms regulating basophil development remain largely unknown. We have found a unique role for isotype-switched antibodies in promoting helminth-induced basophil(More)
The purpose of these studies was to determine the time course for onset of effects of hypoglycemia on insulin gene transcription in vivo. Using insulin infusions, we found that insulin-induced hypoglycemia decreased levels of precursors for insulin mRNA, reflecting changes in new mRNA synthesis, to new steady-state values within 100 min. These changes were(More)
Innate immune recognition of RNA is key for the initiation of immunity in response to viral infection. Although the factors controlling the detection of viral RNA by innate immune receptors in host cells are increasingly well understood, little is known about the dynamic changes in signaling after the initial triggering of these receptors. In this study, we(More)
Early in the course of infection, detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate immune receptors can shape the subsequent adaptive immune response. Here we investigate the influence of virus-associated innate immune activation on lymphocyte distribution in secondary lymphoid organs. We show for the first time that virus infection of mice(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonists are effective in topical application for the immunotherapy of skin cancers, but their performance for the systemic treatment of solid tumors is limited by the development of TLR tolerance. In this study, we describe a novel strategy to overcome TLR tolerance and enhance TLR7-dependent antitumor immune responses through(More)
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