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Specimens of the toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula from the Sea of Japan were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A single TTX-producing bacterial strain (No 1839) was isolated from tissues of C. simula and studied by immunohistochemical methods (including immunoelectron and immunofluorescent microscopies) with anti-TTX antibodies. Sequencing(More)
Transmission electron and confocal laser scanning (CLSM) microscopies with monoclonal anti-tetrodotoxin antibodies were used to locate tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tissues and gland cells of the ribbon worm Lineus alborostratus. CLSM studies have shown that the toxin is primarily localized in the cutis (special subepidermal layer) of the body wall and in the(More)
The proboscis of Hubrechtella juliae was examined using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal more features of basal pilidiophoran nemerteans for morphological and phylogenetic analysis. The proboscis glandular epithelium consists of sensory cells and four types of gland cells(More)
We studied the ultrastructure of the proboscis endothelium of 14 nemertean species. In all nemerteans examined, the endothelium is organized as a pseudostratified myoepithelium consisting of two types of cells resting on the basal extracellular matrix: apically situated supportive cells and subapical myocytes covered by cytoplasmic sheets of the supportive(More)
The taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with the Cephalotrix simula proboscis worm was studied and screening of the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-producing bacteria was carried out using confocal laser scanning microscopy and polyclonal antibodies. Bacterial isolates were identified using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characteristics. A Bacillus(More)
Animals with deformed shells and microalgal invasion have been identified in the natural population of the horse mussel species Modiolus kurilensis of Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of Japan. The haemolymph is initially infested with algae, followed by the rectum, siphons, mantles and gonads located in the posterior body areas. Mantles, which are primarily(More)
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