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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can lead to the creation of heterogeneous, response-limiting hypoxia during illumination, which may be controlled in part through illumination fluence rate. In the present report we consider (1) regional differences in hypoxia, vascular response, and cell kill as a function of tumor depth and (2) the role of fluence rate as a(More)
In data centers, the IO path to storage is long and complex. It comprises many layers or "stages" with opaque interfaces between them. This makes it hard to enforce end-to-end policies that dictate a storage IO flow's performance (e.g., guarantee a tenant's IO bandwidth) and routing (e.g., route an untrusted VM's traffic through a sanitization middlebox).(More)
For commissioning a linear accelerator for clinical use, medical physicists are faced with many challenges including the need for precision, a variety of testing methods, data validation, the lack of standards, and time constraints. Since commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, it is vitally(More)
A thorough understanding of optical properties of biological tissues is critical to effective treatment planning for therapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the last two decades, new technologies, such as broadband diffuse spectroscopy, have been developed to obtain in vivo data in humans that was not possible before. We found that the in vivo(More)
The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity. Abstract Dynamic capacity provisioning is a well studied approach to handling gradual changes in data center(More)
<i>TetriSched</i> is a scheduler that works in tandem with a calendaring reservation system to continuously re-evaluate the immediate-term scheduling plan for all pending jobs (including those with reservations and best-effort jobs) on each scheduling cycle. <i>TetriSched</i> leverages information supplied by the reservation system about jobs' deadlines and(More)
It is desirable to quantify the distribution of the light fluence rate, the optical properties, the drug concentration, and the tissue oxygenation for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of prostate cancer. We have developed an integrated system to determine these quantities before and after PDT treatment using motorized probes. The optical properties (absorption(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires oxygen to cause cellular and vascular tumor damage. Tissue oxygen concentration, in turn, is influenced by blood flow and blood oxygenation. Real-time clinical measurement of these hemodynamic quantities, however, is rare. This paper reports the development and application of a probe, combining diffuse reflectance(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality for the treatment of solid organ disease. Our group at the University of Pennsylvania has performed extensive studies that demonstrate the feasibility of interstitial PDT for prostate cancer. Our preclinical and clinical experience is herein detailed. STUDY(More)
BACKGROUND A study was needed to determine the effect of primary tumor volume on local control of oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy, with or without induction chemotherapy. METHODS Between July 1983 and April 1995, 114 patients with T2-T4 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx were treated for cure with radiation therapy, with or(More)