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—Vehicular networking has significant potential to enable diverse applications associated with traffic safety, traffic efficiency and infotainment. In this survey and tutorial paper we introduce the basic characteristics of vehicular networks, provide an overview of applications and associated requirements, along with challenges and their proposed(More)
Localization of bicoid mRNA to the anterior of the Drosophila oocyte is essential to produce the Bicoid protein gradient that patterns the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. Previous studies have characterized a microtubule-dependent pathway for bicoid mRNA localization during midoogenesis, when bicoid first accumulates at the anterior. We show that the(More)
Intracellular mRNA localization directs protein synthesis to particular subcellular domains to establish embryonic polarity in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila, bicoid (bcd) mRNA is prelocalized at the oocyte anterior. After fertilization, translation of this RNA produces a Bcd protein gradient that determines anterior cell fates [1] and [2]. Analysis(More)
Localized mRNA provides spatial and temporal protein expression essential to cell development and physiology. To explore the mechanisms involved, considerable effort has been spent in establishing new and improved methods for visualizing mRNA. Here, we discuss how these techniques have extended our understanding of intracellular mRNA localization in a(More)
The primary embryonic axes in flies, frogs and fish are formed through translational regulation of localized transcripts before fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the axes are established through the transport and translational regulation of gurken (grk) and bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA in the oocyte and embryo. Both transcripts are translationally(More)
During Drosophila oogenesis, the targeted localization of gurken (grk) mRNA leads to the establishment of the axis polarity of the egg. In early stages of oogenesis, grk mRNA is found at the posterior of the oocyte, whereas in the later stages grk mRNA is positioned at the dorsal anterior corner of the oocyte. In order to visualize the real-time(More)
Localization of bicoid mRNA to the anterior of the Drosophila oocyte is essential for patterning the anteroposterior body axis in the early embryo. bicoid mRNA localizes in a complex multistep process involving transacting factors, molecular motors and cytoskeletal components that remodel extensively during the lifetime of the mRNA. Genetic requirements for(More)
Activation is an essential process that accompanies fertilisation in all animals and heralds major cellular changes, most notably, resumption of the cell cycle. While activation involves wave-like oscillations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in mammals, ascidians and polychaete worms and a single Ca(2+) peak in fish and frogs, in insects, such as(More)
Live cell imaging is an important technique applied to a number of Drosophila tissues used as models to investigate topics such as axis specification, cell differentiation and organogenesis (1). Correct preparation of the experimental samples is a crucial, often neglected, step. The goal of preparation is to ensure physiological relevance and to establish(More)