Timothy Tolle

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Interactive hepadnaviral and chemical hepatocarcinogenesis was studied in woodchucks inoculated as newborns with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), which is closely related to the human hepatitis B virus. When the woodchucks reached 12 months of age, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was administered in the diet at dose levels of 40 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 4(More)
By superinfection of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) strain HIV-2ben-infected macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIVmac, we investigated the mutual influences of an apathogenic and a pathogenic virus in vivo. Four rhesus and two cynomolgus monkeys were infected with HIV-2ben in 1988 and 1989, respectively. Virus could be(More)
Characterization of cellular immune response to antigens of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) can contribute to the understanding of acute resolving and chronic outcome of hepadnavirus infection. Studies were limited because peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of woodchucks failed to incorporate [3H]thymidine sufficiently. Therefore, we established a(More)
Ten rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and six fascicularis (Macaca fascicularis) macaques were inoculated with HIV-2ben using three different virus preparations and two routes of inoculation. Thirteen of the 16 inoculated macaques seroconverted 2-6 weeks after infection. Three M. mulatta remained seronegative. The seroconverted animals developed antibody titres from(More)
A digital library typically includes a set of keywords (or subject terms) for each document in its collection(s). For some applications, including natural resource management, geographic location (e.g., the place of a study or a project) is very important. The metadata for such documents needs to indicate the location(s) associated with a document and users(More)
The sequence variability of distinct regions of the proviral env gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 strain ben (HIV-2ben) isolated sequentially over 3 to 4 years from six experimentally infected macaques was studied. The regions investigated were homologous to the V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, and V7 hypervariable regions identified in the env genes of HIV-1(More)
Metadata++ is a digital library system that we are developing to serve the needs of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, the United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, and the United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service to support natural resource managers, scientists and publics as they(More)