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We present results from a user study that compared six visualization methods for two-dimensional vector data. Users performed three simple but representative tasks using visualizations from each method: 1) locating all critical points in an image, 2) identifying critical point types, and 3) advecting a particle. Visualization methods included two that used(More)
We present Fluid Inking, a generally applicable approach to augmenting the fluid medium of free-form inking with gestural commands. Our approach is characterized by four design criteria, including: 1) pen-based hardware impartiality: all interactions can be performed with a button-free stylus, the minimal input hardware requirement for inking, and the least(More)
3D interaction with a computer is hard. As human interaction in the real world is quite dependent on haptics, we believe that adding haptics will alleviate many of the problems of 3D interaction with a computer. The naive approach to incorporating haptics would be to simply find existing objects and imitate them. This, however, would not seem to adequately(More)
This paper describes preliminary work in a project to add force feedback to user interface elements of the X Window System in an attempt to add true " feel " to the window system's " look and feel ". Additions include adding ridges around icons and menu items to aid interaction, alignment guides for moving windows, and other enhancements to window(More)
We present results from a user study that compared six visualization methods for 2D vector data. Two methods used different distributions of short arrows, two used different distributions of integral curves, one used wedges located to suggest flow lines, and the final was line-integral convolution (LIC). We defined three simple but representative tasks for(More)
GestureBar is a novel, approachable UI for learning gestural interactions that enables a walk-up-and-use experience which is in the same class as standard menu and toolbar interfaces. GestureBar leverages the familiar, clean look of a common toolbar, but in place of executing commands, richly discloses how to execute commands with gestures, through animated(More)
We present MathPaper, a system for fluid pen-based entry and editing of mathematics with support for interactive computation. MathPaper provides a paper-like environment in which multiple mathematical expressions and even algorithms can be entered anywhere on the page. Mathematical expressions can also be modified using simple deletion and dragging gestures(More)
We present a range of novel interactions enabled by a simple modification in the design of a computer mouse. By converting each mouse button to <i>pop through</i> tactile push-buttons, similar to the focus/shutter-release buttons used in many cameras, users can feel, and the computer can sense, two distinct "clicks" corresponding to pressing lightly and(More)
I n the early 1960s, Ivan Sutherland's Sketch-pad implemented a truly revolutionary improvement on batch processing of alphanumeric codes punched on cards: rich, graphics-based, real-time human–computer interaction. 1 However, this idea hit an early plateau with the development of windows, icon, menu, pointing device (WIMP) GUIs, which have slowly evolved(More)
We present an experimental study that evaluates four different techniques for visualizing the machine interpretation of handwritten mathematics. Typeset in Place puts a printed form of the recognized expression in the same location as the handwritten mathematics. Adjusted Ink replaces what was written with scaled-to-fit, cleaned up handwritten characters(More)