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PURPOSE This study tested the Ins2(Akita) mouse as an animal model of retinal complications in diabetes. The Ins2(Akita) mutation results in a single amino acid substitution in the insulin 2 gene that causes misfolding of the insulin protein. The mutation arose and is maintained on the C57BL/6J background. Male mice heterozygous for this mutation have(More)
Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of(More)
Aminoguanidine inhibits the development of retinopathy in diabetic animals, but the mechanism remains unclear. Inasmuch as aminoguanidine is a relatively selective inhibitor of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we have investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on the retinal nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the presence and absence of(More)
Diabetes is associated with extensive microvascular pathology and decreased expression of the glucose transporter (GLUT-1) in retina, but not brain. To explore the basis of these differences, the authors simultaneously measured glucose influx (micromol x g(-1) x min(-1)) and blood flow (mL x g(-1) x min(-1)) in retina and brain cortex of nondiabetic control(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain a model of diabetic retinopathy to which modern methods of genetic engineering may be applied, by determining the response of 2 strains of mice to long-term galactose feeding. METHODS Both C57BL/6 mice BALB/c mice were fed each of 2 galactose-rich diets (30% and 50% galactose), and trypsin digests of their retinas were compared with(More)
Antioxidants were administered to diabetic rats and experimentally galactosemic rats to evaluate the ability of these agents to inhibit the development of diabetic retinopathy. Alloxan diabetic rats and nondiabetic rats that were fed 30% galactose randomly received standard diets or the diets supplemented with ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol (vitamins(More)
The vascular complications of diabetes mellitus have been correlated with enhanced activation of protein kinase C (PKC). LY333531, a specific inhibitor of the beta isoform of PKC, was synthesized and was shown to be a competitive reversible inhibitor of PKC beta 1 and beta 2, with a half-maximal inhibitory constant of approximately 5 nM; this value was(More)
Diabetes causes metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, and these changes suggest a role for inflammation in the development of diabetic retinopathy. These changes include upregulation of iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, caspase 1, VEGF, and NF-kappaB, increased production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, IL-1beta, and cytokines, as well as increased(More)
Chronic hyperglycemia causes structural alterations of proteins through the Maillard reaction. In diabetes, methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced hydroimidazolones are the predominant modification. In contrast to acute hyperglycemia, mitochondrial respiration is depressed in chronic diabetes. To determine whether MGO-derived protein modifications result in(More)
Diabetic retinopathy has long been recognized as a vascular disease that develops in most patients, and it was believed that the visual dysfunction that develops in some diabetics was due to the vascular lesions used to characterize the disease. It is becoming increasingly clear that neuronal cells of the retina also are affected by diabetes, resulting in(More)