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Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of(More)
Diabetes causes metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, and these changes suggest a role for inflammation in the development of diabetic retinopathy. These changes include upregulation of iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, caspase 1, VEGF, and NF-kappaB, increased production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, IL-1beta, and cytokines, as well as increased(More)
PURPOSE This study tested the Ins2(Akita) mouse as an animal model of retinal complications in diabetes. The Ins2(Akita) mutation results in a single amino acid substitution in the insulin 2 gene that causes misfolding of the insulin protein. The mutation arose and is maintained on the C57BL/6J background. Male mice heterozygous for this mutation have(More)
PURPOSE To examine the relationship between early retinal capillary cell apoptosis and late histologic lesions of diabetic retinopathy and to compare the effects of aminoguanidine (AMG) on the retinopathies caused by diabetes and galactose feeding. METHODS Rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and rats fed a 30% galactose diet (known to induce diabetic-like(More)
Aminoguanidine inhibits the development of retinopathy in diabetic animals, but the mechanism remains unclear. Inasmuch as aminoguanidine is a relatively selective inhibitor of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we have investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on the retinal nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the presence and absence of(More)
Diabetes is associated with extensive microvascular pathology and decreased expression of the glucose transporter (GLUT-1) in retina, but not brain. To explore the basis of these differences, the authors simultaneously measured glucose influx (micromol x g(-1) x min(-1)) and blood flow (mL x g(-1) x min(-1)) in retina and brain cortex of nondiabetic control(More)
OBJECTIVE To isolate microvessels from cerebral cortex of dogs with alloxan-induced diabetes and dogs with experimental galactosemia to compare the prevalence of microvascular lesions in cerebral cortex with that in retina. METHODS Microvessels were isolated from cerebral cortex of experimental animals using a sieving method, and compared with the retinal(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain a model of diabetic retinopathy to which modern methods of genetic engineering may be applied, by determining the response of 2 strains of mice to long-term galactose feeding. METHODS Both C57BL/6 mice BALB/c mice were fed each of 2 galactose-rich diets (30% and 50% galactose), and trypsin digests of their retinas were compared with(More)
The vascular complications of diabetes mellitus have been correlated with enhanced activation of protein kinase C (PKC). LY333531, a specific inhibitor of the beta isoform of PKC, was synthesized and was shown to be a competitive reversible inhibitor of PKC beta 1 and beta 2, with a half-maximal inhibitory constant of approximately 5 nM; this value was(More)
To reconstruct the mechanisms for the vasoobliteration that transforms diabetic retinopathy into an ischemic retinopathy, we compared the occurrence of cell death in situ in retinal microvessels of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Trypsin digests and sections prepared from the retinas of seven patients (age 67 +/- 7 yr) with .9 +/- 4 yr of diabetes and(More)