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PURPOSE This study tested the Ins2(Akita) mouse as an animal model of retinal complications in diabetes. The Ins2(Akita) mutation results in a single amino acid substitution in the insulin 2 gene that causes misfolding of the insulin protein. The mutation arose and is maintained on the C57BL/6J background. Male mice heterozygous for this mutation have(More)
Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of(More)
Aminoguanidine inhibits the development of retinopathy in diabetic animals, but the mechanism remains unclear. Inasmuch as aminoguanidine is a relatively selective inhibitor of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we have investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on the retinal nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the presence and absence of(More)
PURPOSE To examine the relationship between early retinal capillary cell apoptosis and late histologic lesions of diabetic retinopathy and to compare the effects of aminoguanidine (AMG) on the retinopathies caused by diabetes and galactose feeding. METHODS Rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and rats fed a 30% galactose diet (known to induce diabetic-like(More)
Chronic hyperglycemia causes structural alterations of proteins through the Maillard reaction. In diabetes, methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced hydroimidazolones are the predominant modification. In contrast to acute hyperglycemia, mitochondrial respiration is depressed in chronic diabetes. To determine whether MGO-derived protein modifications result in(More)
Effects of aminoguanidine and aspirin on the development of retinopathy have been examined in 5-year studies of diabetic dogs. Either agent was administered daily in doses of 20-25 mg. kg(-1). day(-1). Because severity of hyperglycemia greatly influences development of the retinopathy, special effort was devoted to maintaining comparable glycemia in(More)
BACKGROUND Neuron loss, glial activation and vascular degeneration are common sequelae of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in ocular diseases. The present study was conducted to explore the ability of curcumin to inhibit retinal I/R injury, and to investigate underlying mechanisms of the drug effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Different dosages of(More)
PURPOSE The suitability of the galactose-fed rat as a model of diabetic retinopathy was examined in nondiabetic rats fed diets enriched with either 30% or 50% galactose for up to 2 years. METHODS Retinal capillaries were examined by light and electron microscopy, and the prevalence or severity of diabetic-like lesions was quantitated. RESULTS Histologic(More)
PURPOSE Clinical studies have detected an unexpected inhibition of diabetic retinopathy by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, but the mechanism for this action is unclear. In light of evidence indicating that the severity of hyperglycemia is a major initiating factor in the pathogenesis of the retinopathy, this study was conducted to examine(More)
The vascular complications of diabetes mellitus have been correlated with enhanced activation of protein kinase C (PKC). LY333531, a specific inhibitor of the beta isoform of PKC, was synthesized and was shown to be a competitive reversible inhibitor of PKC beta 1 and beta 2, with a half-maximal inhibitory constant of approximately 5 nM; this value was(More)