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An in vivo intestinal perfusion system was used to study the effects of different bile acids on fluid secretion, mucosal permeability, and mucosal morphology in the rabbit colon. To define the structure-activity relationships of the bile acids, nine unconjugated bile acids were used, varying only in the number (two or three) or position (3, 7, or 12 or(More)
Kinins are small peptides that have diverse biological actions. Concentrations of kinins in the nanomolar or subnanomolar range induce intestinal smooth muscle contraction and evoke mucosal electrolyte secretion. Hyperkininemia is associated with effects on gastrointestinal motility and intestinal mucosal inflammation. Bradykinin and kallidin are the(More)
Iopanoic acid was used as a model compound to study the effect of the intestinal perfusion rate on the mean absorption clearance. Absorption of iopanoic acid followed first-order kinetics, with a first-order absorption rate constant (ka) linearly dependent on the dry intestinal weight. An absorption clearance--time plot revealed three phases. Phase I(More)
Viable human T lymphoblasts derived from the "Molt 4b" cell line have been shown to possess functional plasma membrane receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Specific binding of 125I-VIP to these lymphoblasts is rapid, reversible and linearly dependent on the number of cells present. Analysis of binding at 17 degrees C reveals a single class(More)
There are several pathophysiologic conditions in which intestinal inflammation is associated with enhanced mucosal permeability, fluid loss, and epithelial cell injury. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) -derived oxidants on ileal mucosal permeability in vivo as well as electrolyte transport and(More)
The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify the effects of misoprostol (Miso; prostaglandin E1 analogue) on acetic acid-induced increases in mucosal permeability and inflammation; 2) to determine what effect acetic acid, Miso, or the combination of Miso plus acetic acid has on colonic blood flow; and 3) to assess whether the protective effect of Miso(More)
Although the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying indomethacin-induced mucosal injury remain undefined, the results from recent studies suggest that leukocyte adherence in gastric microvessels may be an important component of this injury process. The objective of this study was to determine whether clinically relevant plasma concentrations of indomethacin(More)
The mechanism of the tissue damage induced by colonic inflammation in ulcerative colitis is not established. We therefore developed and characterized a simple new rat model of acute colonic inflammation induced by a single systemic injection of mitomycin C. After an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin-C, colon histologic examination revealed transient (3(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Leukotriene B4 is thought to be a prominent proinflammatory mediator in these diseases, in that leukotriene B4 levels are increased in the colonic mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease patients and there is(More)
1. Castor oil (2 ml orally) produced diarrhoea in rats 1-7 h after challenge, which was associated with gross damage to the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. 2. The injury was accompanied by release of acid phosphatase into the gut lumen, indicating cellular injury. 3. Intraperitoneal injection of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine(More)