Learn More
The South African apartheid system formally ended with the election of the African National Congress at the first all-race elections held in 1994. As a result, racist policies such as color barring, that particularly hindered the advancement of black workers throughout the apartheid period are no longer legal. Yet the legacy of apartheid may endure as a(More)
Distinct IFN-gamma and IL-2 profiles of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells have recently been associated with different clinical disease states and Ag loads in viral infections. We assessed the kinetics and functional profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag-specific T cells secreting IFN-gamma and IL-2 in 23 patients with untreated active tuberculosis when(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease involving diverse cells and mediators whose interconnectivity and relationships to asthma severity are unclear. OBJECTIVE We performed a comprehensive assessment of TH17 cells, regulatory T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, other T-cell subsets, and granulocyte mediators in asthmatic(More)
Due to the lack of consistent data, direct and robust comparisons of crosscountry labour markets have been virtually impossible. This study uses a new panel data series that controls for inconsistencies, thus overcoming this problem. This study estimates gender wage differentials and gender discrimination in the German and United Kingdom labour markets.(More)
BACKGROUND The role of new T-cell-based blood tests for tuberculosis in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis is unclear. OBJECTIVE To compare the performance of 2 interferon-gamma assays and tuberculin skin testing in adults with suspected tuberculosis. DESIGN Prospective study conducted in routine practice. SETTING 2 urban hospitals in the United(More)
BACKGROUND Incomplete understanding of mechanisms and clinicopathobiological heterogeneity in asthma hinders research progress. Pathogenic roles for T-helper-type 17 (Th17) cells and invariant T cells implied by murine data have yet to be assessed in man. We aimed to investigate the role of Th17 and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in airway(More)
BACKGROUND Studies with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and animal models have suggested a role for alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in asthmatic inflammation, but in vivo evidence for this phenotype in human asthma is lacking. OBJECTIVE To characterize the phenotype of lung macrophages from asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a novel class of innate-like T cells, expressing a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) and able to recognize small molecules presented on the non-polymorphic MHC-related protein 1. Their intrinsic effector-memory phenotype, enabling secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their relative abundance in(More)
BACKGROUND Background rates of latent tuberculosis infection in low prevalence regions of Britain are unknown. These would be valuable data for interpreting positive IGRA results, and guiding cost-benefit analyses. The management of a large outbreak of tuberculosis occurring in a rural district hospital provided an opportunity to determine the background(More)
Influenza A virus causes considerable morbidity and mortality largely because of a lack of effective antiviral drugs. Viral neuraminidase inhibitors, which inhibit viral release from the infected cell, are currently the only approved drugs for influenza, but have recently been shown to be less effective than previously thought. Growing resistance to(More)