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Established guidelines for causal inference in epidemiological studies may be inappropriate for genetic associations. A consensus process was used to develop guidance criteria for assessing cumulative epidemiologic evidence in genetic associations. A proposed semi-quantitative index assigns three levels for the amount of evidence, extent of replication, and(More)
PURPOSE We compared the outcome of breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast cancer versus that of matched sporadic controls. METHODS A total of 160 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast cancer were matched with 445 controls with sporadic breast cancer. Primary end points were rates of in-breast tumor recurrence(More)
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of(More)
BACKGROUND Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is widely used by carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations to reduce their risks of breast and ovarian cancer. To guide women and their clinicians in optimizing cancer prevention strategies, we summarized the magnitude of the risk reductions in women with BRCA1/2 mutations who have undergone RRSO(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing numbers of BRCA1 mutation carriers are being identified in cancer risk evaluation programs. However, no estimates of cancer risk specific to a clinic-based population of mutation carriers are available. These data are clinically relevant, because estimates based on families ascertained for linkage studies may overestimate cancer risk(More)
Compared with the general population, women who have inherited a germline mutation in the BRCA1 gene have a greatly increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, there is also substantial interindividual variability in the occurrence of breast cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers. We hypothesize that other genes, particularly those involved in(More)
BACKGROUND Pathways involved in androgen metabolism have been implicated in the etiology of prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of CYP3A4, a gene associated with the oxidative deactivation of testosterone, on the clinical presentation of prostate cancers. METHODS A polymerase chain reaction-based approach was used to(More)
We studied the pattern of E-cadherin expression in 183 invasive carcinomas (100 ductal, 42 lobular, 41 with mixed ductal and lobular features) and 198 in situ carcinomas (131 ductal, 53 lobular, 14 in situ with ductal and lobular features) by immunohistochemistry. We found a highly significant correlation of E-cadherin membrane expression with the(More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma risk is related to sun exposure; we have investigated risk variation by tumour site and latitude. METHODS We performed a pooled analysis of 15 case-control studies (5700 melanoma cases and 7216 controls), correlating patterns of sun exposure, sunburn and solar keratoses (three studies) with melanoma risk. Pooled odds ratios (pORs) and(More)
BACKGROUND Population history can be reflected in group genetic ancestry, where genomic variation captured by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) can separate female- and male-specific admixture processes. Genetic ancestry may influence genetic association studies due to differences in individual admixture(More)