Timothy R. Zacharewski

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An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk(More)
Comparative approaches were used to identify human, mouse and rat dioxin response elements (DREs) in genomic sequences unambiguously assigned to a nucleotide RefSeq accession number. A total of 13 bona fide DREs, all including the substitution intolerant core sequence (GCGTG) and adjacent variable sequences, were used to establish a position weight matrix(More)
Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water(More)
Male courtship and copulation are androgen dependent in the green anole lizard, and female receptivity can be facilitated by testosterone. However, only a few, and relatively large, regions in the brain have been implicated in the control of these behaviours. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to determine in detail where(More)
We investigated the interaction of bisphenol A (BPA, an estrogenic environmental contaminant used in the manufacture of plastics) with the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) transfected into the human HepG2 hepatoma cell line and expanded the study in vivo to examine the effect of BPA on the immature rat uterus. Bisphenol A was 26-fold less potent in(More)
In an effort to further characterize the mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity, comprehensive temporal and dose-response microarray analyses were performed on hepatic tissue from immature ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice treated with TCDD. For temporal analysis, mice were gavaged with 30 microg/kg of TCDD or vehicle and(More)
The study investigated the ability of 34 natural and synthetic chemicals to compete with [3H]17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to bacterially expressed glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-estrogen receptors (ER) fusion proteins from five different species. Fusion proteins consisted of the ER D, E and F domains of human alpha (GST-hERalphadef), mouse alpha(More)
Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds sex steroids with high affinity. In plasma, the number of SHBG steroid-binding sites far exceeds the molar concentrations of sex steroids, and will accommodate other ligands such as phytoestrogens and fatty acids. We have therefore developed a screening assay to identify ligands for SHBG, which exist in our(More)
Temporal- and dose-dependent changes in hepatic gene expression were examined in immature ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice gavaged with ethynyl estradiol (EE), an orally active estrogen. For temporal analysis, mice were gavaged every 24 h for 3 days with 100 microg/kg EE or vehicle and liver samples were collected at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 72 h. Gene expression was(More)
BACKGROUND 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that elicits a broad spectrum of toxic effects in a species-specific manner. Current risk assessment practices routinely extrapolate results from in vivo and in vitro rodent models to assess human risk. In order to further investigate the species-specific responses(More)