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We examined the effects of HCO(3)(-) and CO(2) acidosis on osteoclast-mediated Ca(2+) release from 3-day cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria. Ca(2+) release was minimal above pH 7.2 in control cultures but was stimulated strongly by the addition of small amounts of H(+) to culture medium (HCO(3)(-) acidosis). For example, addition of 4 meq/l H(+) reduced pH(More)
Extracellular nucleotides, signaling through P2 receptors, may act as local regulators of bone cell function. We investigated the effects of nucleotide agonists [ATP, ADP, uridine triphosphate (UTP), and uridine diphosphate] and pyrophosphate (PPi, a key physiological inhibitor of mineralization) on the deposition and mineralization of collagenous matrix by(More)
Hypoxia is known to act as a general stimulator of cells derived from marrow precursors. We investigated the effect of oxygen tension on the formation and function of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bore resorption, which are of promonocytic origin. Using 7- and 13-day cultures of mouse marrow cells on ivory discs, we found that reducing oxygen(More)
There is increasing evidence that extracellular nucleotides act on bone cells via P2 receptors. This study investigated the action of ADP and 2-methylthioADP, a potent ADP analog with selectivity for the P2Y(1) receptor, on osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing multinuclear cells. Using three different assays, we show that ADP and 2-methylthioADP at nanomolar to(More)
Many neuronal and non-neuronal cell types release ATP in a controlled manner. After release, extracellular ATP (or, following hydrolysis, ADP) acts on cells in a paracrine manner via P2 receptors. Extracellular nucleotides are now thought to play an important role in the regulation of bone cell function. ATP (and ADP), acting via the P2Y(1) receptor,(More)
1. There is increasing evidence that extracellular ATP acts directly on bone cells via P2 receptors. In normal rat osteoclasts, ATP activates both non-selective cation channels and Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. In this study we investigated the action of ATP on the formation of osteoclasts and on the ultimate function of these cells, namely resorption pit(More)
  • Tim Arnett
  • 2003
Bone growth and turnover results from the coordinated activities of two key cell types. Bone matrix is deposited and mineralised by osteoblasts and it is resorbed by osteoclasts, multinucleate cells that excavate pits on bone surfaces. It has been known since the early 20th century that systemic acidosis causes depletion of the skeleton, an effect assumed(More)
Bisphosphonates are analogues of pyrophosphate, a key physicochemical inhibitor of mineralisation. We examined the direct actions of bisphosphonates on the function of cultured osteoblasts derived from rat calvariae. Treatment with zoledronate, the most potent bisphosphonate studied, reduced osteoblast number at concentrations > or = 100 nM and was strongly(More)
Disaggregated chick osteoclasts sedimented onto bovine cortical bone slices excavate deep and sharply defined resorption lacunae that stain intensely with toluidine blue. We have used this observation to develop a simple light microscopic method for quantifying the bone resorptive activity of chick osteoclasts in vitro. Using this technique, we have found(More)
The skeletons of land vertebrates contain a massive reserve of alkaline mineral (hydroxyapatite), which is ultimately available to buffer metabolic H+ if acid-base balance is not maintained within narrow limits. The negative impact of acidosis on the skeleton has long been known but was thought to result from passive, physicochemical dissolution of bone(More)