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  • Tim Arnett
  • 2003
Bone growth and turnover results from the coordinated activities of two key cell types. Bone matrix is deposited and mineralised by osteoblasts and it is resorbed by osteoclasts, multinucleate cells that excavate pits on bone surfaces. It has been known since the early 20th century that systemic acidosis causes depletion of the skeleton, an effect assumed(More)
Hypoxia is known to act as a general stimulator of cells derived from marrow precursors. We investigated the effect of oxygen tension on the formation and function of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bore resorption, which are of promonocytic origin. Using 7- and 13-day cultures of mouse marrow cells on ivory discs, we found that reducing oxygen(More)
Breast cancer has a prodigious capacity to metastasize to bone. In women with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases, bisphosphonates reduce the incidence of hypercalcaemia and skeletal morbidity. Recent clinical findings suggest that some bisphosphonates reduce the tumour burden in bone with a consequent increase in survival, raising the possibility(More)
Reports implicating Wnt signalling in the regulation of bone mass have prompted widespread interest in the use of Wnt mimetics for the treatment of skeletal disorders. To date much of this work has focused on their anabolic effects acting on cells of the osteoblast lineage. In this study we provide evidence that Wnts also regulate osteoclast formation and(More)
We examined the effects of HCO(3)(-) and CO(2) acidosis on osteoclast-mediated Ca(2+) release from 3-day cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria. Ca(2+) release was minimal above pH 7.2 in control cultures but was stimulated strongly by the addition of small amounts of H(+) to culture medium (HCO(3)(-) acidosis). For example, addition of 4 meq/l H(+) reduced pH(More)
Many neuronal and non-neuronal cell types release ATP in a controlled manner. After release, extracellular ATP (or, following hydrolysis, ADP) acts on cells in a paracrine manner via P2 receptors. Extracellular nucleotides are now thought to play an important role in the regulation of bone cell function. ATP (and ADP), acting via the P2Y(1) receptor,(More)
The incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures in northern Europe has been increasing over the past few decades faster than the rate adjusted for increased life expectancy. One important factor that determines osteoporotic fracture risk is bone density. The restoration of a London church, during which skeletal material dating from 1729 to 1852 was recovered,(More)
Disaggregated chick osteoclasts sedimented onto bovine cortical bone slices excavate deep and sharply defined resorption lacunae that stain intensely with toluidine blue. We have used this observation to develop a simple light microscopic method for quantifying the bone resorptive activity of chick osteoclasts in vitro. Using this technique, we have found(More)
The negative effect of acidosis on the skeleton has been known for almost a century. Bone mineral serves an important pathophysiologic role as a reserve of hydroxyl ions to buffer systemic protons if the kidneys and lungs are unable to maintain acid–base balance within narrow physiologic limits. Extracellular hydrogen ions are now thought to be the primary(More)
We investigated the effect of hypoxia on rat osteoblast function in long-term primary cultures. Reduction of pO2 from 20% to 5% and 2% decreased formation of mineralized bone nodules 1.7-fold and 11-fold, respectively. When pO2 was reduced further to 0.2%, bone nodule formation was almost abolished. The inhibitory effect of hypoxia on bone formation was(More)