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We examined the effects of HCO(3)(-) and CO(2) acidosis on osteoclast-mediated Ca(2+) release from 3-day cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria. Ca(2+) release was minimal above pH 7.2 in control cultures but was stimulated strongly by the addition of small amounts of H(+) to culture medium (HCO(3)(-) acidosis). For example, addition of 4 meq/l H(+) reduced pH(More)
Extracellular nucleotides, signaling through P2 receptors, may act as local regulators of bone cell function. We investigated the effects of nucleotide agonists [ATP, ADP, uridine triphosphate (UTP), and uridine diphosphate] and pyrophosphate (PPi, a key physiological inhibitor of mineralization) on the deposition and mineralization of collagenous matrix by(More)
Many neuronal and non-neuronal cell types release ATP in a controlled manner. After release, extracellular ATP (or, following hydrolysis, ADP) acts on cells in a paracrine manner via P2 receptors. Extracellular nucleotides are now thought to play an important role in the regulation of bone cell function. ATP (and ADP), acting via the P2Y(1) receptor,(More)
Hypoxia is known to act as a general stimulator of cells derived from marrow precursors. We investigated the effect of oxygen tension on the formation and function of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bore resorption, which are of promonocytic origin. Using 7- and 13-day cultures of mouse marrow cells on ivory discs, we found that reducing oxygen(More)
Breast cancer has a prodigious capacity to metastasize to bone. In women with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases, bisphosphonates reduce the incidence of hypercalcaemia and skeletal morbidity. Recent clinical findings suggest that some bisphosphonates reduce the tumour burden in bone with a consequent increase in survival, raising the possibility(More)
Growing evidence suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signalling through P2 receptors, might play important roles in the regulation of bone and cartilage metabolism. ATP and other nucleotides can exert impressive stimulatory effects on the formation and activity of osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) in addition to inhibiting bone formation by(More)
Previous studies have shown that exogenous ATP (>1 µM) prevents bone formation in vitro by blocking mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. This effect is thought to be mediated via both P2 receptor-dependent pathways and a receptor-independent mechanism (hydrolysis of ATP to produce the mineralisation inhibitor pyrophosphate, PP(i)). Osteoblasts are also(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signaling through P2 receptors, play a role in modulating bone cell function. ATP and ADP stimulate osteoclastic resorption, while ATP and UTP are powerful inhibitors of bone formation by osteoblasts. We investigated changes in the expression of P2 receptors with cell differentiation in primary(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signalling through P2 receptors, could play an important role in modulating bone cell function. ATP and other nucleotides can stimulate the formation and resorptive activity of osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells) in addition to inhibiting bone mineralisation by osteoblasts. This review discusses(More)
We investigated the effect of hypoxia on rat osteoblast function in long-term primary cultures. Reduction of pO2 from 20% to 5% and 2% decreased formation of mineralized bone nodules 1.7-fold and 11-fold, respectively. When pO2 was reduced further to 0.2%, bone nodule formation was almost abolished. The inhibitory effect of hypoxia on bone formation was(More)