Timothy Q. Duong

Learn More
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used for imaging brain functions. However, the extent of the fMRI hemodynamic response around the active sites, at submillimeter resolution, remains poorly understood and controversial. With the use of perfusion-based fMRI, we evaluated the hemodynamic response in the cat visual cortex after(More)
Blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool for localizing brain functions in vivo. However, the ability of BOLD fMRI to map cortical columnar structures is highly controversial, as the ultimate functional specificity of BOLD remains unknown. Here we report a biphasic BOLD response to visual(More)
Measurement of cerebral arterial and venous blood volumes during increased cerebral blood flow can provide important information regarding hemodynamic regulation under normal, pathological, and neuronally active conditions. In particular, the change in venous blood volume induced by neural activity is one critical component of the blood oxygenation(More)
The BOLD signal consists of an intravascular (IV) and an extravascular (EV) component from both small and large vessels. Their relative contributions are dependent on field strength, imaging technique, and echo time. The IV and EV contributions were investigated in the human visual cortex at 4 and 7 T using spin-echo and gradient-echo BOLD fMRI with and(More)
Spatial specificities of the calcium-dependent synaptic activity, hemodynamic-based blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) fMRI were quantitatively compared in the same animals. Calcium-dependent synaptic activity was imaged by exploiting the manganese ion (Mn++) as a calcium analog and an MRI contrast agent at 9.4 T.(More)
Vitamin D deficiency leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover, and bone loss and, when severe, to osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency is common in elderly people, especially the institutionalized. The definition of vitamin D deficiency is hampered by the fact that large interlaboratory differences exist in assays for serum(More)
The existence of the early-negative blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response is controversial and its practical utility for mapping brain functions with columnar spatial specificity remains questionable. To address these issues, gradient-echo BOLD fMRI studies were performed at 4.7 T and 9.4 T using the well-established orientation column model in(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effects of inspired hypoxic, hyperoxic, and hypercapnic gases on baseline and stimulus-evoked changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in spontaneously breathing rats under isoflurane(More)
The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) was dynamically evaluated on a pixel-by-pixel basis in isoflurane-anesthetized and spontaneously breathing rats following graded electrical somatosensory forepaw stimulations (4, 6, and 8 mA). In contrast to alpha-chloralose, which is the most widely used anesthetic in forepaw-stimulation fMRI studies of rats(More)
The Hahn spin-echo (HSE)-based BOLD effect at high magnetic fields is expected to provide functional images that originate exclusively from the microvasculature. The blood contribution that dominates HSE BOLD contrast at low magnetic fields (e.g., 1.5 T), and degrades specificity, is highly attenuated at high fields because the apparent T(2) of venous blood(More)