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Amyloid-beta peptide is elevated in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease and is believed to be causative in the disease process. Amyloid-beta reduces glutamatergic transmission and inhibits synaptic plasticity, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We found that application of amyloid-beta promoted endocytosis of NMDA receptors in(More)
BACKGROUND Formation of long-term memories is critically dependent on extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Activation of the ERK pathway by the sequential recruitment of mitogen-activated protein kinases is well understood. In contrast, the proteins that inactivate this pathway are not as well characterized. METHODS Here we tested the(More)
Peripheral nerve injury promotes an enduring increase in the excitability of the spinal dorsal horn. This change, that likely underlies the development of chronic pain, may be a consequence of prolonged exposure of dorsal horn neurons to mediators such as neurotrophins, cytokines, and neurotransmitters. The long-term effects of such mediators can be(More)
We review previously published data, and present some new data, indicating that spinal application of neuropeptide Y (NPY) reduces behavioral and neurophysiological signs of acute and chronic pain. In models of acute pain, early behavioral studies showed that spinal (intrathecal) administration of NPY and Y2 receptor agonists decrease thermal nociception.(More)
Cellular actions of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) resemble those of micro-, delta-, and kappa-opioids, i.e. activation of inwardly rectifying K(+) conductance, inhibition of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel currents, and impediment of neurotransmitter release. Differences in ORL(1) and micro-receptor distribution lead to: 1) more widespread actions of(More)
There are now four types of opioid receptors. The new designations OP(1), OP(2) and OP(3) correspond, respectively, to the classic delta-, kappa- and micro-nomenclature. OP(4) was previously known as ORL(1), the receptor for the endogenous heptadecapeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ. Although the cellular effects of nociceptin resemble those of conventional(More)
Neuropathic pain that results from injury to the peripheral or CNS responds poorly to opioid analgesics. Y1 and Y2 receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY) may, however, serve as targets for analgesics that retain their effectiveness in neuropathic pain states. In substantia gelatinosa neurons in spinal cord slices from adult rats, we find that NPY acts via(More)
High doses of intrathecally applied morphine or morphine-3beta-D-glucuronide (M3G) produce allodynia and hyperalgesia. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa neurons in transverse slices of adult rat lumbar spinal cord to compare the actions of M3G with those of the mu-opioid agonist, DAMGO(More)
Nociceptive pain alerts the body to potential or actual tissue damage. By contrast, neuropathic or "noninflammatory" pain, which results from injury to the nervous system, serves no useful purpose. It typically continues for years after the original injury has healed. Sciatic nerve lesions can invoke chronic neuropathic pain that is accompanied by(More)
STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP; PTPN5) is expressed in brain regions displaying adult neuroplasticity. STEP modulates neurotransmission by dephosphorylating regulatory tyrosine residues on its substrates. In this way, STEP inactivates extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), limiting the duration and spatial distribution of(More)