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We report the discovery of a group of highly conserved DNA sequences located, in those cases studied, within intergenic regions of the chromosome of the Gram positive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The S. pneumoniae genome contains about 25 of these elements called BOX. From 5' to 3', BOX elements are composed of three subunits (boxA, boxB, and boxC) which are(More)
Learned associations between effects of abused drugs and the drug administration environment are important in drug addiction. Histochemical and electrophysiological studies suggest that these associations are encoded in sparsely distributed nucleus accumbens neurons that are selectively activated by drugs and drug-associated cues. Although correlations have(More)
Repeated cocaine administration to rats outside their home cage induces behavioral sensitization that is strongly modulated by the drug administration environment. We hypothesized that stimuli in the drug administration environment activate specific sets of striatal neurons, called neuronal ensembles, for further cocaine-enhanced activation, and that(More)
Benzodiazepine use by patients in methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment is common, despite safety concerns regarding these drug interactions. The relative safety of diazepam use by methadone- or buprenorphine-treated patients has not been systematically examined. This study aimed to examine the effect of single diazepam doses, within normal(More)
Methadone maintenance is associated with hyperalgesia and elevated mood disturbance-effects opposite to those induced by acute opioid administration, which may undermine outcomes during substitution therapy. This study examined the impact of switching between methadone and slow-release morphine on pain sensitivity and mood status in 14 methadone maintenance(More)
Learned associations between effects of abused drugs and the drug administration environment play important roles in drug addiction. Histochemical and electrophysiological studies suggest that these associations are encoded in sparsely distributed nucleus accumbens neurons that are selectively activated by drugs and drug-associated cues. Although(More)
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