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Epidemiological studies of the naturally transformable bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae have previously been confounded by high rates of recombination. Sequencing 240 isolates of the PMEN1 (Spain(23F)-1) multidrug-resistant lineage enabled base substitutions to be distinguished from polymorphisms arising through horizontal sequence transfer. More(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae was shown to contain two types of superoxide dismutase, MnSOD and FeSOD. Levels of MnSOD increased during growth in an aerobic environment. The sodA gene, encoding MnSOD, of virulent S. pneumoniae type 2 strain D39 was inactivated to give mutant D39HY1. Aerobically, D39HY1 had a lower growth rate than the wild type and exhibited(More)
Natural competence for genetic transformation is the best-characterized feature of the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Recent studies have shown the virulence of competence-deficient mutants to be attenuated, but the nature of the connection between competence and virulence remained unknown. Here we document the release, triggered by(More)
The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins are pore-forming toxins. Pneumolysin is the cytolysin produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae and is a key virulence factor. The protein contains 471 amino acids and four structural domains. Binding to cholesterol is followed by oligomerization and membrane pore formation. Pneumolysin also activates the classical pathway of(More)
Recent genomic-based studies have identified 13 two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacterial TCSs are important for regulating expression of bacterial genes, including those which are important to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. We have used virulence assays together with microarray analysis to investigate the(More)
We report the discovery of a group of highly conserved DNA sequences located, in those cases studied, within intergenic regions of the chromosome of the Gram positive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The S. pneumoniae genome contains about 25 of these elements called BOX. From 5' to 3', BOX elements are composed of three subunits (boxA, boxB, and boxC) which are(More)
From a panel of nine inbred mice strains intranasally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 2 strain, BALB/c mice were resistant and CBA/Ca and SJL mice were susceptible to infection. Further investigation revealed that BALB/c mice were able to prevent proliferation of pneumococci in the lungs and blood, whereas CBA/Ca mice showed no bacterial(More)
Cholesterol dependent cytolysins are important in the ability of some bacteria to cause disease in man and animals. Pneumolysin (PLY) plays a key role in the diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). This chapter describes the role of PLY in some of the key process in disease. These include induction of cell death by pore formation and(More)
Although there is substantial evidence that pneumolysin is an important virulence factor in pneumococcal pneumonia, relatively little is known about how it influences cellular infiltration into the lungs. We investigated how the inability of mutant pneumococci to produce pneumolysin altered the pattern of inflammation and cellular infiltration into the(More)
Vaccination and antimicrobial therapy remain the cornerstones of the management of pneumococcal pneumonia. Despite significant successes, the capacity of the pneumococcus to evolve in the face of the selective pressure of anticapsular immunity challenges immunization programs. Treatment focuses on antimicrobial therapy but ignores the central role of the(More)