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Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) acting via the VPAC2 receptor and BB2 receptors, respectively, are key signaling pathways in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) circadian clock. Transgenic mice lacking the VPAC2 receptor (Vipr2(-/-)) display a continuum of disrupted behavioral rhythms with only a minority capable of(More)
Light is a potent stimulus for regulating circadian, hormonal, and behavioral systems. In addition, light therapy is effective for certain affective disorders, sleep problems, and circadian rhythm disruption. These biological and behavioral effects of light are influenced by a distinct photoreceptor in the eye, melanopsin-containing intrinsically(More)
We report high precision spectrophotometric observations of four planetary transits of HD 209458, in the region of the sodium resonance doublet at 589.3 nm. We find that the photometric dimming during transit in a bandpass centered on the sodium feature is deeper by (2.32 ± 0.57) × 10 −4 relative to simultaneous observations of the transit in adjacent(More)
Environmental illumination profoundly influences mammalian physiology and behaviour through actions on a master circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and other hypothalamic nuclei. The retinal and central mechanisms that shape daily patterns of light-evoked and spontaneous activity in this network of hypothalamic cells are still largely(More)
Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a subset of retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin (mRGCs). These mRGCs are known to drive such reflex light responses as circadian photoentrainment and pupillomotor movements. By contrast, until now there has been no direct assessment of their(More)
The coordinated activity of thousands of cellular oscillators in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) temporally regulates mammalian physiology to anticipate daily environmental changes across the seasons. The phasing of clock gene expression varies according to anatomical location in the SCN and is thought to encode photoperiodic information. However, it is(More)
Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a small number of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin. These mRGCs are especially important contributors to circadian entrainment, the pupil light reflex, and other so-called nonimage-forming (NIF) responses. The(More)
The study of spontaneous neuronal discharge for several days in vitro poses substantial technical difficulties not readily addressed by existing methodologies. Here we describe a novel method for recording bioelectrical signals from brain slices, using media-filled, glass micropipettes stabilized at the recording interface by negative pressure. Such(More)
Twilight is characterised by changes in both quantity ("irradiance") and quality ("colour") of light. Animals use the variation in irradiance to adjust their internal circadian clocks, aligning their behaviour and physiology with the solar cycle. However, it is currently unknown whether changes in colour also contribute to this entrainment process. Using(More)
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), acting via the VPAC(2) receptor, is a key signaling pathway in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock controlling daily rhythms in mammals. Most mice lacking functional VPAC(2) receptors are unable to sustain behavioral rhythms and lack detectable SCN electrical rhythms in vitro. Adult mice that do not(More)