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BACKGROUND Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). These infections are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. The impact of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on(More)
RATIONALE Comorbidities, age, severity of illness, and high risk pathogens are well-known outcome determinants in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). How these factors interact has not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVES We conducted this study to analyze the complex interaction of comorbidities, age, illness severity, and pathogens in relation to CAP. (More)
BACKGROUND The association of hospitalization because of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and long-term survival has not been fully examined. We measured the long-term survival of hospitalized patients with CAP adjusted for the effects of comorbidities. METHODS A cohort of adult patients admitted to the medical services of the Veterans Affairs Medical(More)
OBJECTIVES Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a well-described cause of nosocomial outbreaks and can be highly resistant to antimicrobials. We investigated A. baumannii outbreaks at two Kentucky hospitals to find risk factors for Acinetobacter acquisition in hospitalized patients. METHODS We performed case-control studies at both hospitals. We(More)
BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes considerable worldwide mortality, but limited data compare the mortality in different regions of the world. Our objective was to determine if there was a difference in mortality among hospitalized patients with CAP in three continental regions of the world. METHODS This was a cohort study of patients(More)
INTRODUCTION Controversy exists regarding optimal treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The primary objective of this study was to compare clinical success of linezolid versus vancomycin for the treatment of patients with MRSA VAP. METHODS This was a multicenter, retrospective,(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of time of the first antimicrobial dose (TFAD) on the outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a controversy. METHODS This was an observational, retrospective study of consecutive adult patients hospitalized with CAP. TFAD was defined as the time in hours from arrival at the emergency department to the intravenous(More)
The objective of this study was to compare systemic and local cytokine profiles and neutrophil responses in patients with severe versus non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Hospitalized patients with CAP were grouped according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI), as non-severe (PSI < 91 points) or severe (PSI ≥ 91 points). Blood and sputum(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene have severe clinical presentation and poor clinical outcomes. Antibiotics that suppress toxin production have been suggested for the management of these patients. The(More)
12 purpose Animals may be present in healthcare facilities for multiple reasons. Although specific laws regarding the use of service animals in public facilities were established in the United States in 1990, the widespread presence of animals in hospitals, including service animals to assist in patient therapy and research, has resulted in the increased(More)