Timothy L. Macdonald

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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator that evokes a variety of cell and tissue responses via a set of cell surface receptors. The recent development of S1P receptor agonists, led by the immunomodulatory pro-drug FTY720, has revealed that S1P signaling is an important regulator of lymphocyte trafficking. With the twin goals of(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a multifunctional lipid mediator, regulates lymphocyte trafficking, vascular permeability, and angiogenesis by activation of the S1P1 receptor. This receptor is activated by FTY720-P, a phosphorylated derivative of the immunosuppressant and vasoactive compound FTY720. However, in contrast to the natural ligand S1P, FTY720-P(More)
Immunotherapeutic drugs that mimic sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) disrupt lymphocyte trafficking and cause T helper and T effector cells to be retained in secondary lymphoid tissue and away from sites of inflammation. The prototypical therapeutic agent, 2-alkyl-2-amino-1,3-propanediol (FTY720), stimulates S1P signaling pathways only after it is(More)
Agonists of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) attenuate kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Previous studies suggested that S1P1R-induced lymphopenia mediates this protective effect, but lymphocyte-independent mechanisms could also contribute. Here, we investigated the effects of S1PR agonists on kidney IRI in mice that lack T and B(More)
The physiological implications of lysophosphatidic acid occupancy of individual receptors are largely unknown because selective agonists/antagonists are unavailable currently. The molecular cloning of three high-affinity lysophosphatidic acid receptors, LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3, provides a platform for developing receptor type-selective ligands. Starting with(More)
We sought to determine the mechanisms responsible for the reduced renal tissue injury by agonists of A(2A) adenosine receptors (A(2A)-ARs) in models of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. DWH-146e, a selective A(2A)-AR agonist, was administered subcutaneously to Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice via osmotic minipumps, and animals were subjected to I/R.(More)
Class III beta-tubulin, isolated from adult bovine brain, is resolved into at least seven charge variants on isoelectric focusing gels. To identify the posttranslational modifications responsible for this heterogeneity, a mixture of brain tubulins was treated with cyanogen bromide and the C-terminal fragments from the class III beta-tubulin isoforms were(More)
Increased ventilation in response to hypoxia has been appreciated for over a century, but the biochemistry underlying this response remains poorly understood. Here we define a pathway in which increased minute ventilation (&Vdot;E ) is signalled by deoxyhaemoglobin-derived S-nitrosothiols (SNOs). Specifically, we demonstrate that S-nitrosocysteinyl glycine(More)
Over the past few years increasing attention has been focused on T-type calcium channels and their possible physiological and pathophysiological roles. Efforts toward elucidating the exact role(s) of these calcium channels have been hampered by the lack of T-type specific antagonists, resulting in the subsequent use of less selective calcium channel(More)