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Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase(More)
Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS–RAF–MEK–ERK–MAP kinase(More)
Autologous tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), generated by repeated stimulation with autologous melanoma and expanded in interleukin 2, are major histocompatibility complex restricted. These CTLs recognize a common tumor-associated antigen in the presence of HLA class I determinants, suggesting that allogeneic melanomas which express the(More)
It is well known that tumor-specific CTLs have a crucial role in the elimination of tumors and that different CTL populations recognize tu mor antigens in MHC-restricted and MHC-unrestricted manners. We have established two aßCTL clones that recognize melanoma antigens in both human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted and HLA-unrestricted manners. Flow(More)
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