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Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase(More)
Of several thousand peptides presented by the major histocompatibility molecule HLA-A2.1, at least nine are recognized by melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and to sequence one of these peptide epitopes. Melanoma-specific CTLs had an exceptionally high affinity for this nine-residue peptide, which(More)
Stem cells play a critical role in normal tissue maintenance, and mutations in these stem cells may give rise to cancer. We hypothesize that melanoma develops from a mutated stem cell and therefore residual stem cell characteristics should be able to be identified in melanoma cell lines. We studied three metastatic melanoma cell lines that exhibited(More)
Melanoma-reactive HLA-A x 0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines generated in vitro lyse autologous and HLA-matched allogeneic melanoma cells and recognize multiple shared peptide antigens from tyrosinase, MART-1, and Pme117/gp100. However, a subset of melanomas fail to be lysed by these T cells. In the present report, four different HLA-A x(More)
Autologous melanoma-specific CTL recognize a common tumor-associated Ag (TAA) in the context of HLA class I antigens. We have demonstrated that HLA-A2 can be a restricting Ag and, in T cell lines homozygous for HLA-A2, that CTL can be generated by stimulation with HLA-A2 allogeneic melanomas. In the current study, we have investigated T cell lines from(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are highly efficient antigen-presenting cells able to capture, process, and present antigens to naive and primed T-cells. In this study, we have investigated the ability of DC, derived from murine bone marrow and pulsed with tumor cell extracts, to induce regression of preexisting tumors. In an experimental model of B16 melanoma in B6(More)
CTL lines were established in vitro by stimulating patient lymphocytes with autologous melanoma cells in the presence of IL-2. Resulting CTL lines lysed autologous melanoma and failed to lyse several allogeneic melanomas or K562. The mechanism of target cell recognition by autologous tumor-specific CTL was evaluated in this system, using several CTL lines:(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent inducers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) when pulsed with an antigenic peptide or tumor lysate. In this report, we have used liposome-mediated gene transfer to examine the ability of plasmid DNA encoding the human melanoma-associated antigen gp100 to elicit CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses. We also compared the efficacy(More)
Autologous tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), generated by repeated stimulation with autologous melanoma and expanded in interleukin 2, are major histocompatibility complex restricted. These CTLs recognize a common tumor-associated antigen in the presence of HLA class I determinants, suggesting that allogeneic melanomas which express the(More)
Recent studies have shown that tumor cells transduced with interleukin-2 (IL-2) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) genes stimulated a potent and specific antitumor immunity in experimental animals. For use as a human vaccine, tumor cells must be inactivated by irradiation to ensure the arrest of their growth. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of(More)