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Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase(More)
Of several thousand peptides presented by the major histocompatibility molecule HLA-A2.1, at least nine are recognized by melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and to sequence one of these peptide epitopes. Melanoma-specific CTLs had an exceptionally high affinity for this nine-residue peptide, which(More)
Autologous tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), generated by repeated stimulation with autologous melanoma and expanded in interleukin 2, are major histocompatibility complex restricted. These CTLs recognize a common tumor-associated antigen in the presence of HLA class I determinants, suggesting that allogeneic melanomas which express the(More)
To investigate the ability of human dendritic cells (DC) to process and present multiple epitopes from the gp100 melanoma tumor-associated Ags (TAA), DC from melanoma patients expressing HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 were pulsed with gp100-derived peptides G9154, G9209, or G9280 or were infected with a vaccinia vector (Vac-Pmel/gp100) containing the gene for gp100 and(More)
It is well known that tumor-specific CTLs have a crucial role in the elimination of tumors and that different CTL populations recognize tumor antigens in MHC-restricted and MHC-unrestricted manners. We have established two alpha beta CTL clones that recognize melanoma antigens in both human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted and HLA-unrestricted(More)
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