Timothy L Cover

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Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori strains produce a cytotoxin, encoded by vacA, that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. Analysis of a clinically isolated tox- strain (Tx30a) indicated secretion of a 93-kDa product from a 3933-base pair vacA open reading frame. Characterization of 59 different H. pylori isolates indicated the existence of three(More)
Bacterial protein toxins alter eukaryotic cellular processes and enable bacteria to successfully colonize their hosts. In recent years, there has been increased recognition that many bacterial toxins are multifunctional proteins that can have pleiotropic effects on mammalian cells and tissues. In this review, we examine a multifunctional toxin (VacA) that(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Increased inflammatory cytokine levels and intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis leading to disruption of epithelial integrity are major pathologic factors in inflammatory bowel diseases. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and factors recovered from LGG broth culture supernatant (LGG-s) prevent cytokine-induced(More)
ORP1L is a member of the human oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family. ORP1L localizes to late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes, colocalizing with the GTPases Rab7 and Rab9 and lysosome-associated membrane protein-1. We demonstrate that ORP1L interacts physically with Rab7, preferentially with its GTP-bound form, and provide evidence that ORP1L stabilizes(More)
To determine whether infection with a Helicobacter pylori strain possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of development of adenocarcinoma of the stomach, we used a nested case-control study based on a cohort of 5443 Japanese-American men in Oahu, Hawaii, who had a physical examination and a phlebotomy during 1967 to 1970. We matched 103 H.(More)
Recent evidence indicates that the secreted Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) inhibits the activation of T cells. VacA blocks IL-2 secretion in transformed T cell lines by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). In this study, we investigated the effects of VacA on primary human CD4(+) T cells. VacA inhibited the(More)
In this study, we describe the ultrastructural changes associated with acid activation of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA). Purified VacA molecules imaged by deep-etch electron microscopy form approximately 30-nm hexagonal "flowers," each composed of an approximately 15-nm central ring surrounded by six approximately 6-nm globular "petals."(More)
Helicobacter pylori VacA, a pore-forming toxin secreted by an autotransporter pathway, causes multiple alterations in human cells, contributes to the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and is a candidate antigen for inclusion in an H. pylori vaccine. Here, we present a 2.4-A crystal structure of the VacA p55 domain, which has an(More)
Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori isolates produce a cytotoxin in vitro that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. Screening a lambda ZapII library of H. pylori 60190 chromosomal fragments permitted the identification of a 3864-base pair (bp) open reading frame (vacA) that encoded the vacuolating cytotoxin, and a > or = 567-bp upstream gene that(More)