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In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural asymmetry of(More)
The uncinate fasciculus interconnects the anterior temporal and inferior frontal lobes. The temporal lobes show a number of anatomical asymmetries, some of which are altered in schizophrenia. This study was performed to assess the size and symmetry of the uncinate fasciculus in normal subjects and in patients with the disorder. The area, fibre density and(More)
The dichotomy between schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness is, as E. Kraepelin suspected, flawed; no unequivocal separation can be achieved. There are no categories of psychosis, but only continua of variation. However, the definition of nuclear symptoms by K. Schneider reveals the fundamental characteristics of the core syndrome--it is independent of(More)
With evidence that determinants of psychosis are present early and influence brain development, and in the absence of a significant environmental contribution, schizophrenia may be regarded as a genetic encephalopathy. Morphological abnormalities are particularly apparent in the temporal lobe and on the left side of the brain, and in a number of studies(More)
OBJECTIVE The author examined the chromosomal linkage method as an approach to the genetic basis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. METHOD Comparisons were conducted of recent meta-analyses of genome scans of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and of the three largest (N>300) sibling pair studies of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder and a(More)
Attempts to draw a line of genetic demarcation between schizophrenic and affective illnesses have failed. It must be assumed that these diseases are genetically related. A postmortem study has demonstrated that enlargement of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in schizophrenia but not in Alzheimer-type dementia is selective to the left side of the(More)
Leftward occipital and rightward frontal lobe asymmetry (brain torque) and leftward planum temporale asymmetry have been consistently reported in postmortem and in vivo neuroimaging studies of the human brain. Here automatic image analysis techniques are applied to quantify global and local asymmetries, and investigate the relationship between brain torque(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that the primary focus of the pathological process in schizophrenia is on the limbic system, and there have been several postmortem reports of changes in the histological structure or volume of the hippocampus, as well as a larger number of MRI reports of volume reductions. There are conflicting findings, however, with both(More)
Three observations challenge Kraepelin's binary view of the functional psychoses: a bimodal distribution of the clinical features of manic-depressive illness and schizophrenia has not been demonstrated; affective illness appears to predispose to schizophrenia in later generations; and 'schizoaffective' illnesses cannot be separated in family studies from(More)