Timothy J. Williams

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Many marine bacteria have evolved to grow optimally at either high (copiotrophic) or low (oligotrophic) nutrient concentrations, enabling different species to colonize distinct trophic habitats in the oceans. Here, we compare the genome sequences of two bacteria, Photobacterium angustum S14 and Sphingopyxis alaskensis RB2256, that serve as useful model(More)
A novel peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), has been predicted to result from alternative processing of the primary RNA transcript of the calcitonin gene in the rat. Several lines of evidence suggest that CGRP is a transmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. Human CGRP has been isolated and characterized, and shown to have potent(More)
In this study we provide evidence that the SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 chemokine axis is involved in both the retention of neutrophils within the bone marrow and the homing of senescent neutrophils back to the bone marrow. We show that the functional responses of freshly isolated human and murine neutrophils to CXCR2 chemokines are significantly attenuated by(More)
A metaproteomic survey of surface coastal waters near Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, West Antarctica, was performed, revealing marked differences in the functional capacity of summer and winter communities of bacterioplankton. Proteins from Flavobacteria were more abundant in the summer metaproteome, whereas winter was characterized by proteins(More)
Eosinophil accumulation is a prominent feature of allergic inflammatory reactions, such as those occurring in the lung of the allergic asthmatic, but the endogenous chemoattractants involved have not been identified. We have investigated this in an established model of allergic inflammation, using in vivo systems both to generate and assay relevant(More)
Chemokines direct migration of immune cells into sites of inflammation and infection. Chemokine receptors are seven-transmembrane domain proteins that, in contrast to other cytokine receptors, cannot be easily engineered as soluble chemokine inhibitors. Poxviruses encode several soluble cytokine receptors to evade immune surveillance, providing new(More)
1. Histamine (0.004-2 microm) induced a concentration-dependent shape change of human eosinophils, but not of neutrophils or basophils, detected as an increase in forward scatter (FSC) in the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter (GAFS) assay. 2. The histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was completely abolished by thioperamide (10 microm), an H3/H4(More)
The bulk of the Earth's biosphere is cold (e.g. 90% of the ocean's waters are ≤ 5°C), sustaining a broad diversity of microbial life. The permanently cold environments vary from the deep ocean to alpine reaches and to polar regions. Commensurate with the extent and diversity of the ecosystems that harbour psychrophilic life, the functional capacity of the(More)
Eotaxin is a newly discovered C-C chemokine which preferentially attracts and activates eosinophil leukocytes by acting specifically on its receptor CCR3. The airway inflammation characteristic of asthma is believed to be, at least in part, the result of eosinophil-dependent tissue injury. This study was designed to determine whether there is increased(More)