Timothy J. Williams

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Many marine bacteria have evolved to grow optimally at either high (copiotrophic) or low (oligotrophic) nutrient concentrations, enabling different species to colonize distinct trophic habitats in the oceans. Here, we compare the genome sequences of two bacteria, Photobacterium angustum S14 and Sphingopyxis alaskensis RB2256, that serve as useful model(More)
A novel peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), has been predicted to result from alternative processing of the primary RNA transcript of the calcitonin gene in the rat. Several lines of evidence suggest that CGRP is a transmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. Human CGRP has been isolated and characterized, and shown to have potent(More)
In this study we provide evidence that the SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 chemokine axis is involved in both the retention of neutrophils within the bone marrow and the homing of senescent neutrophils back to the bone marrow. We show that the functional responses of freshly isolated human and murine neutrophils to CXCR2 chemokines are significantly attenuated by(More)
Chemokines direct migration of immune cells into sites of inflammation and infection. Chemokine receptors are seven-transmembrane domain proteins that, in contrast to other cytokine receptors, cannot be easily engineered as soluble chemokine inhibitors. Poxviruses encode several soluble cytokine receptors to evade immune surveillance, providing new(More)
1. Histamine (0.004-2 microm) induced a concentration-dependent shape change of human eosinophils, but not of neutrophils or basophils, detected as an increase in forward scatter (FSC) in the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter (GAFS) assay. 2. The histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was completely abolished by thioperamide (10 microm), an H3/H4(More)
Mobilization of bone marrow eosinophils is a critical early step in their trafficking to the lung during allergic inflammatory reactions. We have shown previously that the cytokine interleukin (IL)-5, generated during an allergic inflammatory reaction in the guinea pig, acts systemically to mobilize eosinophils from the bone marrow. Here, we have(More)
Cardiac muscle fibers have microvessels in close proximity, the distance from the nearest capillary being no greater than 8 microns. We performed experiments on isolated, electrically stimulated, contracting guinea pig cardiac myocytes to test whether NO from endothelium or nitrovasodilators or directly superfused in solution might affect myocyte(More)
Eosinophil accumulation is a prominent feature of allergic inflammatory reactions, such as those occurring in the lung of the allergic asthmatic, but the endogenous chemoattractants involved have not been identified. We have investigated this in an established model of allergic inflammation, using in vivo systems both to generate and assay relevant(More)
Magnetotactic bacteria are a morphologically, metabolically and phylogenetically disparate array of bacteria united by the ability to biomineralize membrane-encased, single-magnetic-domain mineral crystals (magnetosomes) that cause the cell to orientate along the Earth's geomagnetic field. The most commonly observed type of magnetotactic bacteria is the(More)