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Phototransduction in retinal rods involves a G protein-coupled signaling cascade that leads to cGMP hydrolysis and the closure of cGMP-gated cation channels that are open in darkness, producing a membrane hyperpolarization as the light response. For many years there have also been reports of the presence of a phosphoinositide pathway in the rod outer(More)
Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) catalyzes the last step in the metabolic pathway that synthesizes the hormone melatonin. We have found HIOMT mRNA present in small amounts in human retina and in relatively high abundance in the pineal gland. Two distinct 5' ends were found in human retina using a solid-phase 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends(More)
We have isolated and characterized a cDNA for IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and its gene from the chick embryo. Using primers from a conserved region of the mammalian IGFBP-2 sequence, a cDNA clone (1.6 kb) was isolated from an embryonic day-18 chick retina cDNA library. Although the clone was truncated at the 5' end, the complete coding sequence was(More)
Experimental occlusion of the central retinal vessels in albino rats followed by reperfusion for 2 or 4 days resulted in a highly active proliferative response. Mitotic figures were produced in retinal vascular cells, presumed Müller cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and possibly other cell populations in the retina. A large number of mitoses were(More)
The interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM), lying between retinal photoreceptor and pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, contains insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) immunoreactivity that co-elutes with authentic human IGF-I in HPLC analyses. Cultured human RPE cells synthesize and release IGF-I, raising the possibility that the RPE serves as a source of IPM IGF-I in(More)
Levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in bovine aqueous humor are twice those found in the vitreous (aqueal IGF-I = 0.62 nM, vitreal IGF-I = 0.30 nM; aqueal IGF-II = 0.028 nM, vitreal IGF-II = 0.017 nM). IGF-I and II binding assays and IGF-II Western ligand blots indicate that aqueous and vitreous humor have equal overall levels(More)
The expression and regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in developing avian vitreous humor and serum were compared. Vitreal IGF-I-binding activity was highest on embryonic day 6 [E-6; bound/free ratio (B/F), 0.22 +/- 0.019/50 microliters), decreased 10-fold between E-6 and E-19, and then remained stable through the remainder of(More)
The ontogeny of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and ontogeny as well as the molecular nature of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) as they relate to embryogenesis and posthatch growth in the turkey have not been reported. In this study, serum samples were harvested from turkey embryos incubated under shell-less and shelled(More)
PURPOSE To identify homeobox-containing genes that may play a role in the differentiation of ocular tissues. METHODS Total RNA was isolated from microdissected chicken embryo eye tissues at 3.5 days of development (embryonic day 3.5; E3.5). An "anchor-oligo-dT primer" was used for the synthesis of cDNA. Degenerate oligonucleotides designed from(More)
Although patients with diabetic retinopathy have been reported to have elevated vitreal IGF-I levels, it is not known whether diabetes also affects the levels of vitreal IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) which control IGF's bioavailability. To address this issue, vitreal IGFBP levels were assayed in human diabetics, rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and(More)