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Phentermine was shown in the 1970s to inhibit the metabolism of serotonin by monoamine oxidase (MAO), but never was labeled as an MAO inhibitor; hence, it was widely used in combination with fenfluramine, and continues to be used, in violation of their labels, with other serotonin uptake blockers. We examined the effects of phentermine and several other(More)
Regional modulation of the level of cortical neurotrans-mitters in the brain would serve as a new functional brain mapping technique to interrogate the neurochemical actions of the brain. We investigated the utility of the application of low-intensity, pulsed soni-cation of focused ultrasound (FUS) to the brain to modulate the extracellular level of(More)
The ventilatory response to acute hypoxia in mammalian species is biphasic, an initial hyperventilatory response is followed by a reduction in ventilation within 2-3 min below the peak level (roll-off). Brain amino acid neurotransmitters also change during hypoxia. This study explores the role of neurotransmitters in anesthetized adult Sprague Dawley rats(More)
Manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) exposures during developmental period can impair development by direct neurotoxicity or through interaction with iron metabolism. Therefore, we examined the effects of maternal ingestion of Mn or Pb in drinking water during gestation and lactation on iron metabolism as well as behavior in their offspring. Pregnant dams were(More)
Tyrosine (TYR) is the precursor of the catecholamine (CA) neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Catecholamines, especially NE, participate in the response of the brain to acute stress. When animals are acutely stressed, NE neurons become more active and tyrosine availability may be rate-limiting. Tyrosine administration, before exposure(More)
The effects of dietary protein content on diurnal variations in plasma concentrations of neutral and basic amino acids, and on red blood cell levels of acidic amino acids, were studied in seven normal humans. The subjects consumed, on three consecutive 3-day periods, diets containing 0, 75, or 150 g of egg protein per day; blood was collected at 4-h(More)
Administering uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases synaptic membranes (as characterized by pre- and post-synaptic proteins) and dendritic spines in rodents. We examined their effects on rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers in rats with partial unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced striatal lesions. Rats(More)
We explored the possibility that circulating glutamine affects gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in rat striatal tissue and GABA concentrations in striatal extracellular fluid (ECF). Striatal microdialysates, each collected over a 20 min interval, were obtained after no treatment, oral L-glutamine (0.5 g/kg), or glutamine followed by NMDA (administered(More)