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The ventilatory response to acute hypoxia in mammalian species is biphasic, an initial hyperventilatory response is followed by a reduction in ventilation within 2-3 min below the peak level (roll-off). Brain amino acid neurotransmitters also change during hypoxia. This study explores the role of neurotransmitters in anesthetized adult Sprague Dawley rats(More)
Phentermine was shown in the 1970s to inhibit the metabolism of serotonin by monoamine oxidase (MAO), but never was labeled as an MAO inhibitor; hence, it was widely used in combination with fenfluramine, and continues to be used, in violation of their labels, with other serotonin uptake blockers. We examined the effects of phentermine and several other(More)
An association has recently been proposed between the incidence of seizures and prolonged consumption of the phenylalanine-containing artificial sweetener, aspartame. Since consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate phenylalanine in brain, and thereby inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters known to protect against seizure(More)
Regional modulation of the level of cortical neurotrans-mitters in the brain would serve as a new functional brain mapping technique to interrogate the neurochemical actions of the brain. We investigated the utility of the application of low-intensity, pulsed soni-cation of focused ultrasound (FUS) to the brain to modulate the extracellular level of(More)
'Fen-phen' refers to the off-label combination of the appetite suppressants fenfluramine and phentermine. The rationale for the fen-phen combination was that the two drugs exerted independent actions on brain satiety mechanisms so that it was possible to use lower doses of each drug and yet retain a common action on suppressing appetite while minimizing(More)
Administering uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases synaptic membranes (as characterized by pre- and post-synaptic proteins) and dendritic spines in rodents. We examined their effects on rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers in rats with partial unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced striatal lesions. Rats(More)
Tyrosine (TYR) is the precursor of the catecholamine (CA) neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Catecholamines, especially NE, participate in the response of the brain to acute stress. When animals are acutely stressed, NE neurons become more active and tyrosine availability may be rate-limiting. Tyrosine administration, before exposure(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Recent reports on fatalities associated with overdoses from 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), a precursor of the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), pose the need for investigations focusing on possible pharmacologic remedies. Accordingly, the present study investigates whether 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP; also termed fomepizole and Antizol),(More)
A fundamental feature of any drug designed to treat a disease of the central nervous system is the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Passage across the blood-brain barrier of AIT-082, a cognitive enhancer, was investigated in mice. [(14)C]AIT-082 crossed the blood-brain barrier in young male Swiss-Webster mice with a mean influx constant (K(i)) of(More)