Timothy J. Dondero

Learn More
This paper describes the epidemiological techniques available for measuring vaccine efficacy and recommends a practical approach to their use. The efficacy of vaccines in clinical use can be determined by a variety of means, including screening, outbreak investigations, secondary attack rates in families or clusters, vaccine coverage assessment, and(More)
While basic guidelines on HIV prevention in emergencies have been available for several years, international agencies involved in the provision of health services have not placed sufficient priority on the prevention of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in complex emergencies. This paper reviews the(More)
AIMS Data from drug treatment facilities, drug seizures and drug arrests suggest rapidly increasing methamphetamine use by adolescents in Thailand. However, limited quantitative data are available about the prevalence of its use or correlates of use. The purpose of our study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of methamphetamine use and to identify(More)
The discovery of highly divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) not reliably detected by a number of commonly used diagnostic tests has underscored the need for effective surveillance to track HIV variants and to direct research and prevention activities. Pathogens such as HIV that mutate extensively present significant challenges to(More)
BACKGROUND Although numerous mutations that confer resistance to protease inhibitors (PRI) have been mapped for HIV-1 subtype B, little is known about such substitutions for the non-B viruses, which globally cause the most infections. OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of PRI-associated mutations in PRI-naive individuals worldwide. DESIGN Using the(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous data, based on a small sampling of convenience, reported subtypes A, B, C, D, and G in Uganda, but neither the extent nor the proportion of these subtypes could be evaluated. To establish correctly the prevalence and distribution of HIV-1 subtypes, we analysed viral clades in 739 HIV-1-seropositive specimens from different areas of(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe epidemiologic patterns and trends in HIV infection in Vietnam from 1996 through 1999, and to summarize the national response to the epidemic. METHODS We reviewed nationwide HIV case reports, and we analyzed annual seroprevalence among different sentinel populations in 21 provinces, using the chi2 test for linear trend to assess(More)
A comprehensive, multifaceted approach to HIV surveillance is needed to provide the information necessary for public health management and policy. Because HIV infection is not readily or uniformly ascertained, survey methods and sentinel surveillance approaches must be used. At least some of the surveys must be blinded, that is, anonymous and unlinked to(More)
The AIDS Information Center (AIC) was established in Kampala, Uganda in 1990 in response to increasing interest by members of the general public who wished to know their HIV serostatus. By 1996, >300,000 clients had been seen. HIV serologic testing was performed at a central laboratory and results reported back to AIC after 2 weeks. Approximately 25% of(More)