Timothy J. Brown

Learn More
The molecular mechanisms determining the transmissibility and prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a population were investigated through whole-genome sequencing of 1,000 prospectively obtained patient isolates from Russia. Two-thirds belonged to the Beijing lineage, which was dominated by two homogeneous clades. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) genotypes(More)
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB), which is resistant to both first- and second-line antibiotics, is an escalating problem, particularly in the Russian Federation. Molecular fingerprinting of 2348 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected in Samara Oblast, Russia, revealed that 72% belonged to the Beijing lineage, a genotype associated(More)
High-temporal resolution meteorological output from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across the western United States due to climatic changes projected in the 21st century. A business-as-usual scenario incorporating changing greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations until the year 2089 is compared to a(More)
The rapid identification of bacteria in blood cultures and other clinical specimens is important for patient management and antimicrobial therapy. We describe a rapid (<4 h) detection and identification system that uses universal PCR primers to amplify a variable region of bacterial 23S ribosomal DNA, followed by reverse hybridization of the products to a(More)
Understanding the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and mutations in genes associated with drug resistance may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions to improve tuberculosis control. A structured questionnaire was used to collect basic epidemiological data from 589 patients with radiologically confirmed TB in the Odessa and(More)
Pathogenic free-living amoebae are common in nature, but few clinical infections by these amoebae have been reported. This has prompted studies of host susceptibility factors in humans. A survey of normal human sera from three New Zealand Health Districts was made; antibodies to pathogenic free-living amoebae were found in all sera, with titers ranging from(More)
Consecutive patient cultures (140) of Mycobacteriium tuberculosis were collected from five Russian civilian and prison tuberculosis laboratories and analyzed for rifampin (rpoB) and isoniazid resistance (inhA, katG, ahpC); transmission of Beijing family isolates; and the importance of prison and previous therapy in drug resistance. Rifampin, isoniazid, and(More)
To address conflicting results about the stability of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and their value in prospective molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we conducted a large prospective population-based analysis of all M. tuberculosis strains in a metropolitan setting. Optimal and reproducible conditions for reliable PCR and(More)
High incidence rates of isoniazid-, rifampin-, and multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis have been reported in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Genotypic (unlike phenotypic) drug resistance assays do not require viable cultures but require accurate knowledge of both the target gene and the mutations associated with resistance. For these assays to(More)
To inform development of tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repetitive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats [VNTRs]) and large sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The(More)