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The molecular mechanisms determining the transmissibility and prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a population were investigated through whole-genome sequencing of 1,000 prospectively obtained patient isolates from Russia. Two-thirds belonged to the Beijing lineage, which was dominated by two homogeneous clades. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) genotypes(More)
AIMS To assess the performance of three commercially available Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection systems employing nucleic acid amplification, when applied directly to respiratory and non-respiratory specimens from patients where the diagnosis of tuberculosis is difficult using clinical and traditional bacteriological methods. METHODS 42 respiratory(More)
Pathogenic free-living amoebae are common in nature, but few clinical infections by these amoebae have been reported. This has prompted studies of host susceptibility factors in humans. A survey of normal human sera from three New Zealand Health Districts was made; antibodies to pathogenic free-living amoebae were found in all sera, with titers ranging from(More)
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB), which is resistant to both first- and second-line antibiotics, is an escalating problem, particularly in the Russian Federation. Molecular fingerprinting of 2348 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected in Samara Oblast, Russia, revealed that 72% belonged to the Beijing lineage, a genotype associated(More)
The United Kingdom Health Protection Agency Mycobacterium Reference Unit offers a national "Fastrack" molecular service for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampin resistance by using the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay. We analyzed the service in a routine, nontrial context of 1,997 primary clinical specimens, including 658 nonrespiratory(More)
High incidence rates of isoniazid-, rifampin-, and multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis have been reported in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Genotypic (unlike phenotypic) drug resistance assays do not require viable cultures but require accurate knowledge of both the target gene and the mutations associated with resistance. For these assays to(More)
To inform development of tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repetitive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats [VNTRs]) and large sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The(More)
Keywords: Virtual reality Computer-based training Collaborative virtual environment Earth and atmospheric sciences a b s t r a c t The destruction caused by wildfires has led to the development of various models that try to predict the effects of this phenomenon. However, as the computational complexity of these models increases, their utility for real-time(More)
While high-copy-number IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (HCN-RFLP) is the gold standard for typing most Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, the time taken for culturing and low throughput make it impractical for large-scale prospective typing of large numbers of isolates. The development of a new method, mycobacterial interspersed(More)
The rapid identification of bacteria in blood cultures and other clinical specimens is important for patient management and antimicrobial therapy. We describe a rapid (<4 h) detection and identification system that uses universal PCR primers to amplify a variable region of bacterial 23S ribosomal DNA, followed by reverse hybridization of the products to a(More)