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PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several state health department laboratories to facilitate subtyping bacterial foodborne pathogens for epidemiologic purposes. PulseNet, which began in 1996 with 10 laboratories typing a single pathogen(More)
The frequency of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes associated with postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases among children and adults in the United States and the proportion with IgM or IgG lipopolysaccharide antibodies to E. coli O157 were determined by use of a nationwide sample from January 1987 through December 1991.(More)
We describe a field investigation in New England that identified the emergence and epidemiology of new strains of multidrug-resistant Salmonella, Newport-MDRAmpC, and summarize the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's surveillance data for these infections. In Massachusetts, the prevalence of Newport-MDRAmpC among Salmonella serotype Newport isolates(More)
In January and February of 1981, 85 cases of enteritis caused by Salmonella muenchen were reported from Ohio, Michigan, Georgia, and Alabama. Initial investigation failed to implicate a food source as a common vehicle, but in Michigan 76 per cent of the patients, in contrast to 21 per cent of the control subjects, admitted personal or household exposure to(More)
Standardized rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols for the subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella serotypes, and Shigella species are described. These protocols are used by laboratories in PulseNet, a network of state and local health departments, and other public health laboratories that perform real-time PFGE subtyping of(More)
CONTEXT Ceftriaxone, an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, is an antimicrobial agent commonly used to treat severe Salmonella infections, especially in children. Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections have recently been reported in the United States, but the extent of the problem is unknown. OBJECTIVES To summarize national surveillance data for(More)
The PulseNet National Database, established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996, consists of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns obtained from isolates of food-borne pathogens (currently Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, and Listeria) and textual information about the isolates. Electronic images and(More)
In 1992, a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli O157 infections occurred in southern Africa. In Swaziland, 40,912 physician visits for diarrhea in persons ages >5 years were reported during October through November 1992. This was a sevenfold increase over the same period during 1990-91. The attack rate was 42% among 778 residents we(More)
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strains demonstrate varied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns following XbaI digestion, which enable epidemiological surveillance of this important human pathogen. The genetic events underlying PFGE differences between strains, however, are not defined. We investigated the mechanisms for strain variation in O157 by(More)
Shiga-like toxin (SLT-II) was purified to apparent homogeneity from Escherichia coli K-12 strain NM522 containing the cloned toxin genes on recombinant plasmid pEB1. Purification was accomplished by a series of column chromatography techniques: anion-exchange, chromatofocusing, cation-exchange, and monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl(More)