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The cornerstone of autotrophy, the CO(2)-fixing enzyme, d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), is hamstrung by slow catalysis and confusion between CO(2) and O(2) as substrates, an "abominably perplexing" puzzle, in Darwin's parlance. Here we argue that these characteristics stem from difficulty in binding the featureless CO(2)(More)
The neural system underlying face perception must represent the unchanging features of a face that specify identity, as well as the changeable aspects of a face that facilitate social communication. However, the way information about faces is represented in the brain remains controversial. In this study, we used fMR adaptation (the reduction in fMRI(More)
[1] We utilize energy budget diagnostics from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to evaluate the models' climate forcing since preindustrial times employing an established regression technique. The climate forcing evaluated this way, termed the adjusted forcing (AF), includes a rapid adjustment term associated with cloud changes and(More)
We have examined several components of the human visual system to determine how the dimensions of the optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), and primary visual cortex (V1) vary within the same brain. Measurements were made of the cross-sectional area of the optic tract, the volumes of the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the LGN, and the(More)
We have studied the morphology of the central sulcus and the cytoarchitecture of the primary sensorimotor cortex in 20 human brains obtained at autopsy. Although the surface appearance of the central sulcus varies greatly from brain to brain (and between hemispheres of individual brains), its deep structure is remarkably consistent. The fundus of the(More)
Non-green algae have Rubiscos that are phylogenetically distinct from their counterparts in green algae and higher plants. Some non-green-algal Rubiscos are more specific for CO2, relative to O2, than higher-plant Rubiscos, sometimes coupled with lower Michaelis constants for CO2. If these Rubiscos could be substituted for the higher-plant enzyme, and if(More)
The efficiency with which crop plants use their resources of light, water, and fertilizer nitrogen could be enhanced by replacing their CO(2)-fixing enzyme, d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RubisCO), with more efficient forms, such as those found in some algae, for example. This important challenge has been frustrated by failure of all(More)
People are extremely proficient at recognizing faces that are familiar to them, but are poor at identifying unfamiliar faces. We used fMR-adaptation to ask whether this difference in recognition might be reflected in the relative viewpoint-dependence of face-selective regions in the brain. A reduced response (adaptation) to repeated images of unfamiliar or(More)
Systematic climate shifts have been linked to multidecadal variability in observed sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean. These links are extensive, influencing a range of climate processes such as hurricane activity and African Sahel and Amazonian droughts. The variability is distinct from historical global-mean temperature changes and is(More)
691 E arth's climate is determined by the flows of energy into and out of the planet and to and from Earth's surface. Geographical distributions of these energy flows at the surface are particularly important as they drive ocean circulations, fuel the evaporation of water from Earth's surface and govern the planetary hydrological cycle. Changes to the(More)