Timothy J. Andrews

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We have examined several components of the human visual system to determine how the dimensions of the optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), and primary visual cortex (V1) vary within the same brain. Measurements were made of the cross-sectional area of the optic tract, the volumes of the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the LGN, and the(More)
The neural system underlying face perception must represent the unchanging features of a face that specify identity, as well as the changeable aspects of a face that facilitate social communication. However, the way information about faces is represented in the brain remains controversial. In this study, we used fMR adaptation (the reduction in fMRI(More)
The cornerstone of autotrophy, the CO(2)-fixing enzyme, d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), is hamstrung by slow catalysis and confusion between CO(2) and O(2) as substrates, an "abominably perplexing" puzzle, in Darwin's parlance. Here we argue that these characteristics stem from difficulty in binding the featureless CO(2)(More)
Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) with an antisense gene directed against the mRNA of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit was used to determine the kinetic properties of Rubisco in vivo. The leaves of these plants contained only 34% as much Rubisco as those of the wild type, but other photosynthetic(More)
A complementary DNA for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and fused in the antisense orientation to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. This antisense gene was introduced into the tobacco genome, and the resulting transgenic plants were analyzed to assess the(More)
Eye position was recorded in different viewing conditions to assess whether the temporal and spatial characteristics of saccadic eye movements in different individuals are idiosyncratic. Our aim was to determine the degree to which oculomotor control is based on endogenous factors. A total of 15 naive subjects viewed five visual environments: (1) The(More)
Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) plants with an antisense gene directed against the mRNA of the small subunit of Rubisco were used to investigate the role of O2 as an electron acceptor during photosynthesis. The reduction in Rubisco has reduced the capacity for CO2-fixation in these plants without a similar reduction in electron transport(More)
People are extremely proficient at recognizing faces that are familiar to them, but are poor at identifying unfamiliar faces. We used fMR-adaptation to ask whether this difference in recognition might be reflected in the relative viewpoint-dependence of face-selective regions in the brain. A reduced response (adaptation) to repeated images of unfamiliar or(More)
d-Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) catalyses the central CO(2)-fixing reaction of photosynthesis in a complex, multiple-step process. Several structures of rubisco complexed with substrate analogues, inhibitors and products have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structures fall into two well-defined and distinct states.(More)
Systematic climate shifts have been linked to multidecadal variability in observed sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean. These links are extensive, influencing a range of climate processes such as hurricane activity and African Sahel and Amazonian droughts. The variability is distinct from historical global-mean temperature changes and is(More)