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Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation, affecting one in 800 live born human beings. Mice with segmental trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn mice) are at dosage imbalance for genes corresponding to those on human chromosome 21q21-22.3--which includes the so-called DS 'critical region'. They do not show early-onset of(More)
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation and affects many aspects of brain development. DS individuals exhibit an overall reduction in brain size with a disproportionately greater reduction in cerebellar volume. The Ts65Dn mouse is segmentally trisomic for the distal 12-15 Mb of mouse chromosome 16, a region that shows(More)
Palatable food stimulates neural systems implicated in drug dependence; thus sugar might have effects like a drug of abuse. Rats were given 25% glucose solution with chow for 12 h followed by 12 h of food deprivation each day. They doubled their glucose intake in 10 days and developed a pattern of excessive intake in the first hour of daily access. After 30(More)
Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in huntingtin (HTT) protein. We previously showed that calorie restriction ameliorated Huntington's disease pathogenesis and slowed disease progression in mice that model Huntington's disease (Huntington's disease mice). We now report that overexpression of(More)
The inositol pyrophosphate IP7 (5-diphosphoinositolpentakisphosphate), formed by a family of three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), modulates diverse cellular activities. We now report that IP7 is a physiologic inhibitor of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase that regulates glucose homeostasis and protein translation, respectively, via the GSK3β and(More)
The distribution and relative specificity of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors in the rat brain was mapped by in vitro autoradiography with [125I]CCK-33. We identified two distinct binding patterns, suggesting two CCK receptor types. The first is widespread and relatively non-specific. The second, localized to a few subcortical nuclei, has the specificity(More)
Energy homeostasis and feeding are regulated by the central nervous system. C75, a fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, causes weight loss and anorexia, implying a novel central nervous system pathway(s) for sensing energy balance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of peripheral energy balance, is phosphorylated and activated when energy sources(More)
A strong candidate gene for schizophrenia and major mental disorders, disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) was first described in a large Scottish family in which a balanced chromosomal translocation segregates with schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. The translocation mutation may result in loss of DISC1 function via haploinsufficiency or(More)
The mechanisms through which leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, affects food intake remain to be determined. To assess whether the actions of leptin depend on modulation of within-meal satiety signals, we measured the effect of third ventricular leptin administration on the satiety actions of CCK. Leptin (10 micrograms) administered 1 h before(More)
Trisomic Ts65Dn mice show direct parallels with many phenotypes of Down syndrome (DS), including effects on the structure of cerebellum and hippocampus. A small segment of Hsa21 known as the 'DS critical region' (DSCR) has been held to contain a gene or genes sufficient to cause impairment in learning and memory tasks involving the hippocampus. To test this(More)