Timothy H. Holtz

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A retrospective cohort study of 35 refugee Tibetan nuns and lay students who were arrested and tortured in Tibet matched with 35 controls who were not arrested or tortured was carried out in India. Subjects were administered the Hopkins Checklist-25, evaluating anxiety symptoms, effective disturbances, somatic complaints, and social impairment. The(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has emerged as a global epidemic, with ~425,000 new cases estimated to occur annually. The global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic has caused explosive increases in TB incidence and may be contributing to increases in MDR-TB prevalence. METHODS We reviewed published studies and(More)
BACKGROUND Latvia has one of the highest rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB). Our aim was to assess treatment outcomes for the first full cohort of MDRTB patients treated under Latvia's DOTS-Plus strategy following WHO guidelines. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed all civilian patients who began treatment with individualised treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by the roundworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis are rarely reported, even in regions of endemic infection such as Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. We report an outbreak of A. cantonensis meningitis among travelers returning from the Caribbean. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study among(More)
BACKGROUND Conversion of sputum mycobacterial cultures from positive growth to negative growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is considered the most important interim indicator of the efficacy of anti-TB pharmacologic treatment for multidrug-resistant disease. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare time to and(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify(More)
The production of guidelines for the management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) fits the mandate of the World Health Organization (WHO) to support countries in the reinforcement of patient care. WHO commissioned external reviews to summarise evidence on priority questions regarding case-finding, treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB),(More)
SETTING Brooklyn Chest Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the treatment outcome and 2- and 5-year follow-up of patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with individualized regimens. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of all MDR-TB patients starting treatment during 1992-2002. Patients were evaluated every 6(More)
The broadest pattern of tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance for which a consensus definition exists is extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. It is not known if additional drug resistance portends worsened patient outcomes. This study compares treatment outcomes of XDR-TB patients with and without additional resistance in order to explore the need for a new(More)
Malaria in pregnancy contributes to low birth weight and increased infant mortality. As part of WHO's Roll Back Malaria initiative, African heads of state pledged that by 2005, 60% of pregnant women will receive malaria chemoprophylaxis or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). We performed a cluster sample survey to study the use of(More)