Timothy Graves

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Standardized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (StaRT-PCR) is a modification of the competitive template (CT) RT method described by Gilliland et al. StaRT-PCR allows rapid, reproducible, standardized, quantitative measurement of data for many genes simultaneously. An internal standard CT is prepared for each gene, cloned to generate enough(More)
Morphological analysis of cytologic samples obtained by fine-needle aspirate (FNA) or bronchoscopy is an important method for diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma. However, this approach has only about 65 to 80% diagnostic sensitivity. Based on previous studies, the c-myc x E2F-1/p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21 hereafter) gene expression index is highly sensitive and(More)
Long-range dependence (LRD) and non-Gaussianity are ubiquitous in many natural systems such as ecosystems, biological systems and climate. However, it is not always appreciated that the two phenomena may occur together in natural systems and that self-similarity in a system can be a superposition of both phenomena. These features, which are common in(More)
Deregulated cell cycle progression and loss of proliferation control are key properties of malignant cells. In previous studies, an interactive transcript abundance index (ITAI) comprising three cell cycle control genes, [MYC × E2F1]/p21 accurately distinguished normal from malignant bronchial epithelial cells (BEC), using a cut-off threshold of 7,000. This(More)
Cell proliferation control depends in part on the carefully ordered regulation of transcription factors. The p53 homolog p73, contributes to this control by directly upregulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21waf1/cip1. E2F1, an inducer of cell proliferation, directly upregulates p73 and in some systems upregulates p21 directly. Because of its(More)
Long memory plays an important role in many fields by determining the behaviour and predictability of systems; for instance, climate, hydrology, finance, networks and DNA sequencing. In particular, it is important to test if a process is exhibiting long memory since that impacts the accuracy and confidence with which one may predict future events on the(More)
Stress fractures that occur in the young active population typically represent an overuse injury, and may lead to prolonged periods of restriction from play if they are not treated appropriately. Several risk factors have been identified and must be addressed when treating these patients. Low-risk stress fractures can be successfully treated with activity(More)
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